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Transcript
Multiple
Choice
Short
Answers
Fill in the
blink
Definition
BONUS!
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Bonus! 10
70
Multiple Choice - 10
What is the ultimate source of variation in a
population?
1)
2)
3)
4)
Mutation
Asexual reproduction
Mitosis
Natural selection
•
Answer 1 – 10
Answer: 1, that’s right! Mutation in
DNA is the ultimate source of
variation in a population
Multiple Choice- 20
Which process tends to reduce variety within a
population?
1)
2)
3)
4)
Natural Selection
Random fertilization
Independent assortment
Crossing over
Multiple Choice Answer – 20
Answer: 1, natural selection tends to
reduce variety within a population.
Remember the survival of the fittest?
Multiple Choice- 30
Which factor is NOT an important part in natural
selection?
1) Competition within a species
2) Selective breeding of domestic plants and
animals
3) Heritable variation
4) Limited environmental resources
Multiple Choice Answer– 30
Answer: 2, selective breeding of domestic plants
and animals is not an important part in natural
selection.
Why? Because selective breeding or artificial
selection is one of the evidences of evolution,
not the important part in natural selection!
Multiple Choice- 40
What is the mechanism of natural selection?
1) After a change in the environment, a species will evolve
adaptations to the new conditions
2) Any individuals in a population can be selected entirely by
chance
3) If an adaptation to the environment is useful, an individual
will develop it and pass it on to its offspring
4) Variations amongst individuals of a population are selected
by a changing environment
Multiple Choice Answer– 40
Answer: 4, mechanism of natural
selection is variations amongst
individuals of a population are
selected by a changing
environment
Multiple Choice- 50
Why has antibiotic resistance evolved in bacteria?
1) All bacteria reproduce quickly
2) Varieties of bacteria resistant to antibiotics reproduce faster
than non-resistant varieties
3) Bacteria showing resistance to antibiotics survive after
antibiotics are used
4) Bacteria exposed to antibiotics developed a resistance to
them
Multiple Choice Answer– 50
Answer: 3, bacteria showing resistance to
antibiotics survive after antibiotics are used and
thus, through the process of natural selection,
the bacteria with beneficial variation has more
chance to pass on the beneficial characteristics
to its offspring!
Short Answer- 10
State two reasons why individuals
in the population have to compete
for resources.
Answer– 10
Because of limited resources and
over-production, the individuals
that have the same needs then
have to compete for the same
recourses.
Short Answer- 20
How does sexual
reproduction increase
variation in a population?
(suggest 2 ways)
Answer– 20
Sexual reproduction can increase variation by
1) Crossing over and random assortment of
homologous chromosome in meiosis
2) Random fertilization
3) Combining alleles from two parents (1/2
from each)
Short Answer- 30
Explain the development of
antibiotic resistance in bacteria.
(How does it happen?)
Answer– 30
Antibiotics are a change in environment, and
any mutation that helps bacteria survive
antibiotics will increase through natural
selection. Overtime, the bacteria with beneficial
variation will survive and reproduce more,
passing the useful variation to the offspring.
Eventually, resistance will evolve.
Short Answer- 40
Why are there more dark (melanistic)
forms of pepped moths than the light
(speckled) forms in the polluted
environment?
Answer– 40
Because in the polluted environment, the color
of the dark forms act as effective camouflage
that makes them difficult to spot by predators,
and thus increases their chance to survive and
reproduce. The dark forms then have higher
chance to pass on the beneficial characteristics
to their offspring comparing to the light forms.
Thus, overtime, the darks forms will have more
offspring than the light forms do, maximizing
their population
Short Answer- 50
State the Darwin-Wallace
theory of evolution by
Natural Selection.
Answer – 50
1.
2.
3.
4.
Genetic variation exists within a population
More offspring are born than can survive to reproduce
Resources are limited
Because of over-reproduction, individuals of the same
species must compete for resources
5. Some variation in the population will be more useful in
the competition for resources/ survival/ reproduction.
6. Individuals with beneficial variations will survive loner
and/or reproduce more frequently
7. The beneficial variations become more common and
the changes add up over time; this the population
changes over time.
Fill in the Blank- 10
Natural selection can only occur
if there is _____ among
members of the same species.
Answer– 10
Natural selection can only
occur if there is variation
among members of the
same species.
Fill in the Blank- 20
_____ are the characteristics
that make an individual suited
to its environment and way of
life.
Answer– 20
Adaptations are the
characteristics that make an
individual suited to its
environment and way of life.
Fill in the Blank- 30
_____ and _____ independently
developed the theory of Natural
Selection.
Answer – 30
Charles Darwin and Alfred
Wallace independently
developed the theory of Natural
Selection
Fill in the Blank- 40
In order for natural selection
to work, variation must
be____.
Answer – 40
In order for natural selection
to work, variation must be
heritable.
Examples of heritable variations?
Skin color, hair color and eye color
Fill in the Blank- 50
Individuals with beneficial
variation will _____ and _____,
leading the beneficial variations
to become more common.
Answer– 50
Individuals with beneficial variation
will survive longer and reproduce
more, leading the beneficial
variations to become more
common.
Definition- 10
Define natural selection
Answer – 10
Natural selection is the “survival of the
fittest” or “the mechanism that
increases the chance of certain
individuals reproducing”
Definition- 20
Define species
Answer– 20
Species are groups of organisms that
can potentially interbreed to produce
fertile offspring.
Definition- 30
Define gene mutation
Answer – 30
Gene mutation is a change to the
base sequence of a gene.
Definition- 40
Define evolution
Answer– 40
A genetic change in a population or
species overtime, which is often
the result of natural selection.
Bonus Question- 10
True or false, characteristics
acquired during the lifetime of
an individual are not heritable.
Answer – 10
Answer: true!
The characteristics acquired
during the lifetime of an
individual are not heritable.
Bonus Question - 20
Natural Selection _____ the
frequency of characteristics that
make individuals better adapted
and _____ the frequency of other
characteristics leading to changes
within the species.
Answer – 20
• Natural Selection increases the
frequency of characteristics that
make individuals better adapted and
decreases the frequency of other
characteristics leading to changes
within the species.
Bonus Question - 20
Suggest two ways that can help
slow down the antibiotic
resistance.
Answer – 20
Ways to slow down the antibiotic resistance
1) Take antibiotic as directed
2) Limit antibiotic use for non-medical uses
(in hand soap, livestock or crops)
3) Give antibiotics only when needed for
bacterial infections
Bonus Question - 30
State three key points about natural selection that are illustrated
in the pictures.
Answer – 30
The possible key points are
1) Genetic variation exists within a population
2) Some variations are more beneficial than the
others
3) Individuals with beneficial variations will
survive and reproduce more
4) The beneficial variation become more
common and the changes add up over time:
evolution occurs
Bonus Question - 60
With reference to the graphs, explain the relationship between the average
beak size of finches on Daphne Major and the average size of seeds available
during 1977-1980. Suggest the reason behind it.
Answer – 60
The graph show the positive relationship between the
average beak size of the finches and the average size of
seeds available. Since there is a variation in finches,
with different beak sizes, during the drought that
caused the seeds to become bigger and harder, the
natural selection occurred causing some finch
variations with small beaks to die out. On the other
hand, the beneficial variations with large beak sizes
had more chances to survive and reproduce, passing
the characteristics to the offspring. And thus, evolution
occurred causing the average beak size to increased.
Bonus Question - 70
Explain evolution of a species by
natural selection in response to
environment change.
Answer – 70
The answer should include:
1) Species show variation
2) Variation in inherited
3) Species have the potential to produce more offspring that
can survive
4) Resources are limited
5) Those that are best adapted survive to reproduce
6) This leads to a population adapted to the environment
7) As the environment changes those that are best adapted will
have more offspring
8) This will cause the species to evolve to a new adaptation/
change in gene frequencies.