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Transcript
Chapter 15
Multiple Regression and Model
Building
McGraw-Hill/Irwin
Copyright © 2014 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Multiple Regression and Model
Building
15.1 The Multiple Regression Model and the
Least Squares Point Estimate
15.2 Model Assumptions and the Standard
Error
15.3 R2 and Adjusted R2 (This section can be
read anytime after reading Section 15.1)
15.4 The Overall F Test
15.5 Testing the Significance of an
Independent Variable
15.6 Confidence and Prediction Intervals
15-2
Multiple Regression and Model Building
Continued
15.7
15.8
The Sales Territory Performance Case
Using Dummy Variables to Model
Qualitative Independent Variables
15.9 Using Squared and Interaction
Variances
15.10 Model Building and the Effects of
Multicollinearity
15.11 Residual Analysis in Multiple
Regression
15.12 Logistic Regression
15-3
LO15-1: Explain the
multiple regression
model and the related
least squares point
estimates.
15.1 The Multiple Regression Model and
the Least Squares Point Estimate
Simple linear regression used one independent
variable to explain the dependent variable
◦ Some relationships are too complex to be described
using a single independent variable
 Multiple regression uses two or more independent
variables to describe the dependent variable
◦ This allows multiple regression models to handle
more complex situations
◦ There is no limit to the number of independent
variables a model can use
 Multiple regression has only one dependent variable

15-4
LO15-2: Explain the
assumptions behind
multiple regression and
calculate the standard
error.

15.2 Model Assumptions and the
Standard Error
The model is
y = β0 + β1x1 + β2x2 + … + βkxk + 

Assumptions for multiple regression are
stated about the model error terms, ’s
15-5
LO15-3: Calculate and
interpret the multiple
and adjusted multiple
coefficients of
determination.
1.
2.
3.
4.
15.3 R2 and Adjusted R2
Total variation is given by the formula
Σ(yi - ȳ)2
Explained variation is given by the formula
Σ(ŷi - ȳ)2
Unexplained variation is given by the formula
Σ(yi - ŷi)2
Total variation is the sum of explained and
unexplained variation
This section can be covered
anytime after reading Section 15.1
15-6
LO15-3
R2 and Adjusted R2 Continued
5.
6.
7.
The multiple coefficient of determination is
the ratio of explained variation to total
variation
R2 is the proportion of the total variation
that is explained by the overall regression
model
Multiple correlation coefficient R is the
square root of R2
15-7
LO15-4: Test the
significance of a
multiple regression
model by using an F
test.
15.4 The Overall F Test


To test
H0: β1= β2 = …= βk = 0 versus
Ha: At least one of β1, β2,…, βk ≠ 0
The test statistic is
(Explained variation )/k
F(model) 
(Unexplain ed variation )/[n - (k  1)]


Reject H0 in favor of Ha if F(model) > F* or
p-value < 
*F is based on k numerator and n-(k+1)

denominator degrees of freedom
15-8
LO15-5: Test the
significance of a single
independent variable.



15.5 Testing the Significance of an
Independent Variable
A variable in a multiple regression model is
not likely to be useful unless there is a
significant relationship between it and y
To test significance, we use the null
hypothesis H0: βj = 0
Versus the alternative hypothesis
Ha: βj ≠ 0
15-9
LO15-6: Find and
interpret a confidence
interval for a mean
value and a prediction
interval for an
individual value.
15.6 Confidence and Prediction
Intervals




The point on the regression line corresponding to a
particular value of x01, x02,…, x0k, of the
independent variables is
ŷ = b0 + b1x01 + b2x02 + … + bkx0k
It is unlikely that this value will equal the mean
value of y for these x values
Therefore, we need to place bounds on how far the
predicted value might be from the actual value
We can do this by calculating a confidence interval
for the mean value of y and a prediction interval for
an individual value of y
15-10
LO15-7: Use dummy
variables to model
qualitative independent
variables.


15.8 Using Dummy Variables to Model
Qualitative Independent Variables
So far, we have only looked at including
quantitative data in a regression model
However, we may wish to include
descriptive qualitative data as well
◦ For example, might want to include the gender of
respondents

We can model the effects of different levels
of a qualitative variable by using what are
called dummy variables
◦ Also known as indicator variables
15-11
LO15-8: Use squared
and interaction
variables.
15.9 Using Squared and Interaction
Variables


The quadratic regression model relating y
to x is:
y = β0 + β1x + β2x2 + 
Where:
1. β0 + β1x + β2x2 is the mean value of the
dependent variable y
2. β0, β1x, and β2x2 are regression parameters
relating the mean value of y to x
3.  is an error term that describes the effects on y
of all factors other than x and x2
15-12
LO15-9: Describe
multicollinearity and
build a multiple
regression model.
15.10 Model Building and the Effects of
Multicollinearity


Multicollinearity is the condition where the
independent variables are dependent, related or
correlated with each other
Effects
◦ Hinders ability to use t statistics and p-values to assess the
relative importance of predictors
◦ Does not hinder ability to predict the dependent (or
response) variable

Detection
◦ Scatter plot matrix
◦ Correlation matrix
◦ Variance inflation factors (VIF)
15-13
LO15-10: Use residual
analysis to check the
assumptions of multiple
regression.

15.11 Residual Analysis in Multiple
Regression
For an observed value of yi, the residual is
ei = yi - ŷ = yi – (b0 + b1xi1 + … + bkxik)

If the regression assumptions hold, the
residuals should look like a random sample
from a normal distribution with mean 0 and
variance σ2
15-14
LO15-11: Use a logistic
model to estimate
probabilities and odds
ratios.

15.12 Logistic Regression
Logistic regression and least squares
regression are very similar
◦ Both produce prediction equations

The y variable is what makes logistic
regression different
◦ With least squares regression, the y variable is a
quantitative variable
◦ With logistic regression, it is usually a dummy 0/1
variable
15-15