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DEFINE SOIL • Your Definition
• SOL Definition
Soil is formed from the
weathering of rocks and organic
activity and is composed of loose
rock fragments and clay derived
from weathered rock mixed with
organic material.
Soil Formation
Soil Profile
Soil and Climate
• Tropical Climates – humid and a lot of rain
• Soils are very good for growing plants
• Lot of humus (20%-30%)
• However, lots of rain leaches the material downward and create a very
thin soil.
• Any removal of vegetation will cause topsoil to erode away and be lost.
Soil and Climate
• Desert Climates – very dry
• Low rate of chemical weathering.
• Water moving through the ground will evaporate as it
reaches the surface leaving “salts” behind.
• Too much salt is toxic to plants.
• Salt Flats
Soil and Climates
• Temperate Climates – “us” – both chemical and
mechanical weathering occur.
• Not enough rain to leach out nutrients so you have
thick fertile soils.
• Breadbasket – able to grow wide variety of plants.
Soil and Climates
• Arctic Climate – much like desert climates, arctic areas
can have very little precipitation. “Cold Deserts”
• Less chemical weathering and slow soil development.
Very few plants can survive in this environment.
Soil Conservation
• Soil Conservation – the various methods used to take care of the soil.
• Importance of soil
• Plant Health – better soil = better plants
• Housing – burrowing creatures live there.
• Storage – soil holds water
Soil Texture Triangle
• Sand > 0.05 mm
• Silt > 0.002 mm
• Clay < 0.002 mm
• Grain Size Analysis
• Sieve Analysis
40% Silt – 40% Sand – 20% Clay = LOAM