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Earth System Study Guide Test Day: Monday April 10 (A day) and Tuesday April 11 (B day) Know the following terms, facts, and information for chapter 8 Erath system test. 1. The earth is about _______________ years old. 2. Be able to explain different layers of Earth and the characteristics of each level. 3. The elements of earth are separated such that the _____________________ elements are in the center, and called_________ 4. The core center of the Earth is __________Km is below the Earth’s surface. 5. Define lithosphere and its components. 6. Magma circulates in convection cells of ________________. 7. What is the cause of high temperature at the center of the Earth? 8. Define and explain Hot Spots. 9. Explain the process of Sea Floor Spreading p.211. 10. Be able to explain and identify different parts of figure 8.5 on p.211. 11. Is it possible to have more damaging in lower Richter scale of an earthquake in an area verses higher Richter scale within same area? Explain. 12. Definition of rock, mineral, and soil. 13. Compare the permeability property of various soils such as, sand, clay, soils that developed from granitic rock, etc. 14. Name the type of rock(s) that holds fossil records. 15. Know the difference between weathering and erosion. 16. Know the difference between chemical and physical weathering of rock. 17. Differential cracking of the rocks happens because of _______ (see p.219.) 18. Know different examples of physical and chemical weathering. 19. Erosion is caused by__________. 20. List the functions of soil. 21. Know the effects of temperature and climate in soil formation. 22. Know different layers and components of soil horizon. 23. Know the correct order of physical size of sediment particles from largest to smallest. 24. Know the permeability and texture characteristics of soil particle (i.e. sand, silt and clay). 25. Know to determine the texture of the soil using soil triangle fig. 8.22 (page 224) 26. Define CEC or cation exchange capacity. 27. How plants (agriculture productivity) benefits from CEC. 28. Compare soil acids and soil bases. 29. Define base saturation. 30. List the elements that make 88% of the Earth’s crust. 31. Know Ores and its formation 32. Know metals definition and formation in rock. 33. Know different types of mining. 34. List environmental problems associated with mining.