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Transcript
The Atom
Topic 2.1
Atomic Scientists’ Song 2:52
History
• this is NOT IB material until indicated
• it is very interesting from a geeky-science
stand point
• it will help you understand and appreciate the
structure of the atom
• you are not responsible for knowing the
information from all thescientists
• however, it would be “embarrassing” if you
went through this course and never heard of
these guys
Aristotle (460 B.C. – 370 B.C.)
• emphasized that nature
consisted of four
elements: air, earth, fire,
and water
• did not believe in
discontinuous or separate
atoms, but felt that
matter was continuous
Democritus (460 B.C. – 370 B.C.)
• first to suggest the
existence of “atoms”
(Greek word “atomos”
= indivisible)
• atoms are indivisible
and indestructible
• no experimental
support
http://www.stenudd.com/myth/Greek/images/democritus_1628_Brugghen.jpg
John Dalton (1766-1844)
• used scientific method to test
Democritus’s ideas
• Dalton’s atomic theory
1. elements composed of atoms
2. atoms of the same element are alike
3. different atoms can combine in ratios to
form compounds
4. chemical reactions can occur when atoms
are separated, joined, or rearranged (but
atoms are not created nor destroyed)
J.J. Thompson (1856-1940)
know this guy
• discovered the
electron using a
cathode ray
• http://www.youtube.com/wa
tch?v=2xKZRpAsWL8
• thought atom was
negative charges
stuck in a positive
charged lump
– referred to as the
“plumb pudding
model”
Robert A. Millikan (1868-1953)
• found the quantity of
charge carried by an
electron (one unit of
negative charge)
• calculated the mass of an
electron (1/1840th the mass
of a hydrogen atom)
Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937)
know this guy
• proposed that the atom
is mostly empty space
• positive charges and
almost all of the mass
are in a small,
centralized region called
the nucleus
“Like howitzer
shells bouncing
off of tissue
paper!”
Rutherford Flash Animation
Try it Yourself!
In the following pictures, there is a target hidden by a cloud.
To figure out the shape of the target, we shot some beams into
the cloud and recorded where the beams came out. Can you
figure out the shape of the target?
?
The Answers
Target #1
Target #2
Niels Bohr (1855-1962)
know this guy
• electrons found only in
specific circular paths (orbits)
around the nucleus
• based on information about
how the energy of an atom
changes when it absorbs and
emits light
• called these fixed energies
“energy levels”
Erwin Schrodinger (1926)
• quantum
mechanical model
– probability of
electron locations
around the
nucleus
– not an exact orbit
• eventually became
the electron cloud
model
Schrödinger's Cat video 1:41
Werner Heisenberg (1927)
• Heisenberg
Uncertainty Principle
– impossible to know
the exact position
and momentum of an
electron at the same
time
• “the observer affects
the observed”
http://www.deutsches-museumbonn.de/ausstellungen/heisenberg/bilder/heisenb
erg_2.jpg
Atomic Scientists’
Song 2:52
Structure of the Atom
Particle
Charge
Location
+1
Mass
(atomic
mass units)
1
Proton
Neutron
Ø
1
nucleus
Electron
-1
5.0 x 10-4
orbit, level,
cloud
(considered
negligible)
nucleus
Learning Check
An atom has 14 protons and 20 neutrons.
A. Its atomic number is
1) 14
2) 16
3) 34
B. Its mass number is
1) 14
2) 16
3) 34
C. The element is
1) Si
3) Se
2) Ca
D. The number of electrons in a neutral atom is
1) 14
2) 6
3) 20
Isotopes
• same element but differ in their number of
neutrons
• the atomic mass on periodic table is the
WEIGHTED AVERAGE MASS of all the
isotopes of that element
– this is based on an isotope’s natural abundance
• the percentage of each isotope of an element
that occurs in nature
• have the same chemical properties
(reactivity) but different physical properties
(density, melting/boiling point…)
2.3
Chemical symbols for isotopes
• two different ways to write isotopes
– example for sodium
• sodium- 23
– only shows mass number (23) of the sodium isotope
• 23
Na
11
– shows the mass number (23) and the atomic # (11)
of the sodium isotope
Mass Number
Atomic Number
A
Z
X
Element Symbol
Isotopes?
Which of the following represent isotopes
of the same element? Which element?
234
92
X
234
93
X
235
X
92
92 is the element uranium
238
92
X
Do You Understand Isotopes?
How many protons, neutrons, and
electrons are in--
14
6C
6 protons, 8 (14 - 6) neutrons, 6 electrons
How many protons, neutrons,
and electrons are in-6 protons, 5 (11 - 6) neutrons, 6 electrons
11
6C
Radioactive Isotopes (don’t need to know)
• unstable isotopes that break down over time
• uses:
Dangerous,
but worth
– cobalt 60
• radiation treatment for cancer
– carbon 14
• used to date objects up to 60,000
years old
– iodine 125 and iodine 131
• ingested and used for
medical imaging
the risk
The Mass Spectrometer
• has many applications, but one of the simplest
is to determine the natural abundances of the
isotopes of a particular element
– the relative atomic mass can be calculated from
the data from the mass spectrometer
Mass spectrometer video (2:26)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_L4U6ImYSj
0
Carbon- 12 as a standard
• carbon- 12
– ALL masses on the periodic table are based on
their relationship to carbon-12
• the C-12 atom has been given the atomic weight
of exactly 12.000000000 and is used as the basis
upon which the atomic weight of other isotopes
is determined
Calculate the relative atomic mass of
magnesium with the provided data.
• magnesium results
from the mass
spectrometer:
– 80%
– 10%
– 10%
24Mg
25Mg
26Mg
• just a simple weighted mean
– .80(24) + .10(25) + .10(26) = 24.3 amu
Calculate the abundance (the % of each
isotope found in nature) for the two isotopes
of rubidium.
• last time we were given the graph with the
abundance (%) of each isotope
– therefore, work backwards…
• Rubidium (Rb) has relative atomic mass of 85.47 and
two isotopes
– rubidium with a mass number of 85 and rubidium
with a mass number of 87
• make rubidium 85 = x
• make rubidium 87 = y
– (x · 85) + (y · 87) = 85.47
Be clear with your
answer and state
the percent of
each isotope.
• x+y=1
• therefore substitute (1 – x) for y in order to solve for one
variable
– (x · 85) + ((1-x) · 87) = 85.47
• solve for x
• x = .765 or 76.5% for rubidium- 85
• therefore y = .235 or 23.5% for rubidium- 87