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Massachusetts v. E.P.A., 127 S.Ct. 1438
Round 1
Global Warming Litigation
What does the clear air act §7521(a)(1)
require the EPA to issue regulations on?
[35] "The [EPA] Administrator shall by regulation
prescribe (and from time to time revise) in
accordance with the provisions of this section,
standards applicable to the emission of any air
pollutant from any class or classes of new motor
vehicles or new motor vehicle engines, which in
his judgment cause, or contribute to, air pollution
which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger
public health or welfare ...
What is the definition of pollutant in the
[36] The Act defines "air pollutant" to include "any
air pollution agent or combination of such agents,
including any physical, chemical, biological,
radioactive ... substance or matter which is
emitted into or otherwise enters the ambient air."
§7602(g). "Welfare" is also defined broadly:
among other things, it includes "effects on ...
weather ... and climate." §7602(h).
What was the National Climate Program
Act of 1978?
In 1978, Congress enacted the National Climate
Program Act, 92 Stat. 601, which required the
President to establish a program to "assist the
Nation and the world to understand and respond
to natural and man-induced climate processes
and their implications
What did the National Academy of
Sciences Tell President Carter?
"If carbon dioxide continues to increase, the study
group finds no reason to doubt that climate
changes will result and no reason to believe that
these changes will be negligible... . A wait-and-see
policy may mean waiting until it is too late."
What did the Global Climate Protection
Act of 1987 require the EPA to do?
Finding that "manmade pollution -- the release of carbon
dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, methane, and other trace
gases into the atmosphere -- may be producing a longterm and substantial increase in the average temperature
on Earth," §1102(1), 101 Stat. 1408, Congress directed
EPA to propose to Congress a "coordinated national
policy on global climate change...Congress emphasized
that "ongoing pollution and deforestation may be
contributing now to an irreversible process" and that
"[n]ecessary actions must be identified and implemented
in time to protect the climate."
The First Global Warming Treaty
What is the Kyoto Protocol?
Why did the senate say it would reject it?
 Did it apply equally to all countries?
What was Congress worried about?
 What is the potential economic consequence of
the treaty for the US?
Was this a partisan vote?
 Who was President?
What did the petition of October 20, 1999
ask the EPA to do?
On October 20, 1999, a group of 19 private
organizations*fn15 filed a rulemaking petition asking EPA
to regulate "greenhouse gas emissions from new motor
vehicles under §202 of the Clean Air Act."
As to EPA's statutory authority, the petition observed that
the agency itself had already confirmed that it had the
power to regulate carbon dioxide.
What does the EPA have to do with a request?
What had the EPA said about its authority
over CO2 in the past?
In 1998, Jonathan Z. Cannon, then EPA's General
Counsel, prepared a legal opinion concluding that
"CO2 emissions are within the scope of EPA's
authority to regulate," even as he recognized that
EPA had so far declined to exercise that authority.
Whose EPA was this?
Did EPA seek public comment on the
[45] Fifteen months after the petition's
submission, EPA requested public comment on
"all the issues raised in [the] petition," adding a
"particular" request for comments on "any
scientific, technical, legal, economic or other
aspect of these issues that may be relevant to
EPA's consideration of this petition." 66 Fed. Reg.
7486, 7487 (2001).
What were EPA two findings when it
finally ruled on the petition in 2003?
(1) that contrary to the opinions of its former
general counsels, the Clean Air Act does not
authorize EPA to issue mandatory regulations to
address global climate change, see id., at 5292552929; and
(2) that even if the agency had the authority to set
greenhouse gas emission standards, it would be
unwise to do so at this time,
Whose EPA is this?
What was the EPA evidence of
Congressional intent?
[48] In concluding that it lacked statutory
authority over greenhouse gases, EPA observed
that Congress "was well aware of the global
climate change issue when it last
comprehensively amended the [Clean Air Act] in
1990," yet it declined to adopt a proposed
amendment establishing binding emissions
limitations. Id., at 52926. Congress instead chose
to authorize further investigation into climate
Was there specific legislation on global
atmospheric issues?
EPA further reasoned that Congress' "specially
tailored solutions to global atmospheric issues,"
68 Fed. Reg. 52926 -- in particular, its 1990
enactment of a comprehensive scheme to
regulate pollutants that depleted the ozone layer -counseled against reading the general
authorization of §202(a)(1) to confer regulatory
authority over greenhouse gases.
Is ozone the same issue as CO2?
How was this position strengthened by
the political history of the Clean Air Act?
[50] EPA reasoned that climate change had its
own "political history": Congress designed the
original Clean Air Act to address local air
pollutants rather than a substance that "is fairly
consistent in its concentration throughout the
world's atmosphere," declined in 1990 to enact
proposed amendments to force EPA to set carbon
dioxide emission standards for motor vehicles,
ibid. and addressed global climate change in
other legislation, 68 Fed. Reg. 52927.
Administrative Policy Rationale for the
EPA Position
What did EPA want from Congress before
regulating green house gasses?
What is the regulatory conflicts problem with the
EPA regulating gasoline mileage?
What does the EPA think of the association
between global warming and human production of
greenhouse gases?
Impact of Unilateral EPA Regs on Global
Warming Treaties
Why would motor vehicle regulations conflict with
the goal of a comprehensive approach to global
Why would such regulations weaken the
president's ability to persuade developing
countries to lower their emissions?
Standing in This Case
What is the Injury and Who is Injured?
Why does an injury to everyone usually mean that
a given litigant cannot show individualized injury?
What does Baker v. Carr tell us about the injury
 What is the court's role in general injury cases?
 Which branch of government should this be left
What did Lujan tells us?
"While it does not matter how many persons have
been injured by the challenged action, the party
bringing suit must show that the action injures
him in a concrete and personal way.
How can Congress Change This?
However, a litigant to whom Congress has "accorded a
procedural right to protect his concrete interests," id.,
here, the right to challenge agency action unlawfully
withheld, -- "can assert that right without meeting all the
normal standards for redressability and immediacy," ibid.
When a litigant is vested with a procedural right, that
litigant has standing if there is some possibility that the
requested relief will prompt the injury-causing party to
reconsider the decision that allegedly harmed the litigant.
What is the more generous formulation of this
principle in the Sugar Cane Growers case?
"A [litigant] who alleges a deprivation of a
procedural protection to which he is entitled never
has to prove that if he had received the procedure
the substantive result would have been altered. All
that is necessary is to show that the procedural
step was connected to the substantive result"
Why is this going to be critical for a global
warming case?
Do the same standing requirements apply
to states as to individuals?
" This is a suit by a State for an injury to it in its capacity
of quasi-sovereign. In that capacity the State has an
interest independent of and behind the titles of its
citizens, in all the earth and air within its domain. It has
the last word as to whether its mountains shall be
stripped of their forests and its inhabitants shall breathe
pure air."
Justice Holmes explained in Georgia v. Tennessee
Copper Co., 206 U. S. 230, 237 (1907)
Did anyone notice this case in lower court litigation?
What is Massachusetts's interest?
Does Mass own affected land?
What powers did the state give up when it entered
the Union that limit what it can do about global
What does it mean to say that the state is acting
as parens patriae?
What are the injuries to Mass caused by global
 Why is this imminent?
What is the particularized injury that Mass
claims to its own lands?
Because the Commonwealth "owns a substantial portion
of the state's coastal property," it has alleged a
particularized injury in its capacity as a landowner. The
severity of that injury will only increase over the course
of the next century: If sea levels continue to rise as
predicted, one Massachusetts official believes that a
significant fraction of coastal property will be "either
permanently lost through inundation or temporarily lost
through periodic storm surge and flooding events."
Sound familiar?
Why does EPA say causation fails?
 What does EPA say is the main reason its efforts will
not change the outcome?
Why does the court say small, incremental reforms are
 Does the court accept that automobile emissions are
only a small contributor to global warming?
Why would accepting the EPA's argument in this case
hurt agencies in other cases when they want to regulate
The Remedy
Does redressability require that the remedy fix all
the plaintiff's problems?
What does the court remind us about the factual
arguments in this case as it sums up? Have these
been tested in court?
What does the court say Mass has standing to
The Special Nature of the Case
What does Heckler v. Chaney, 470 U. S. 821 (1985)
tell us about the chances of a litigant forcing the
agency to take an enforcement action?
Why are refusals to make rules more amenable to
judicial review?
Why does the existence of a procedure for
requesting rulemaking imply some role for judicial
review of the denial of the petition for rulemaking?
The EPA's Invitation to the Courts
What was the primary reason the EPA refused to
make a rule on carbon dioxide?
Why is this sort of reason especially attractive for
judicial review?
What is the Clean Air Act definition of air
 Under this definition, are you an air polluter?
We will discuss the Chevron and FDA aspects
later in the course
What could EPA have done differently?
What does the EPA need to do to support its
refusal to make a rule so that the courts cannot
find the refusal arbitrary and capricious?
Given the broad language of the Clear Air Act,
what should EPA have done to avoid this case?
The Dissent
What is the heart of the dissent's belief that this is
a political question?
Is there merit to this argument?
Application to Private Suits
Does this opinion imply that there is standing for
private claims against private parties?
What are the limitations of this case?