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Transcript
Technology Development and
Transfer in the Context of Climate
Change Negotiations
WILLIAM KOJO AGYEMANG-BONSU
UNFCCC FOCAL POINT/CDM-DNA
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
GHANA
At the Special Session of the African Ministerial
Conference on Environment, 23 – 29 May 2009
UNON, Nairobi, Kenya
Outline
 What are the things that we know?
 Overview of the global negotiations on Development and




Transfer of Technologies (DTT) under United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto
Protocol
DTT under the Bali Action plan
What should Africa Look out for under the Bali Action
Plan?
Key Issues for Consideration
What could be Africa joint action for implementation of
DTT?
Development and Transfer of Technologies:
What are the things we know?
 Investments in clean energy are growing fast, including new


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financial products and markets
There is substantial financing gap for the required scaling
up technologies for both mitigation and adaptation
Private sector incentives must be reinforced
Africa has the greatest potential for all of the most favoured
technologies in recent years: wind, solar, biofuels
Carbon markets (including CDM) can play important role
but Africa is yet to see the benefits
Indigenous adaptation technologies already exist in Africa
and need to be documented, scaled-up and diffused
Overview
 The United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol
have paid attention to the need for development and
transfer of environmentally sound technologies to
developing countries,

For the purposes of enabling these countries to achieve
advancement in their development whilst limiting their
greenhouse gas emissions and adapting to the impacts of
climate change.
Overview - What are in the UNFCCC
and the KP on DTT?
 The Article 4.1 (c) of the UNFCCC commits all Parties to the
Convention to promote and cooperate in the development,
application and diffusion, including transfer of
technologies, practices and processes that control, reduce
or prevent anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases
not controlled by the Montreal Protocol in all relevant
sectors, including the energy transport, industry,
agriculture, forestry and waste management sectors.
Overview - What are in the UNFCCC
and the KP on DTT?
 Article 4.5 commits the developed country Parties
and other developed Parties in Annex II to the
Convention to “take all practicable steps to promote,
facilitate and finance, as appropriate, the transfer of
or access to, environmentally sound technologies
and know-how to other Parties, particularly
developing country Parties to enable them
implement the provisions of the Convention….”
Overview - What are in the UNFCCC
and the KP on DTT?
 Article 4.7 states that “the extent to which developing
countries under the Convention will effectively implement
their commitments under the Convention will depend on
the effective implementation by developed country Parties
of their commitments under the Convention related to
financial resources (Article 3.1) and transfer of technology
(Article 4.5) and will take fully into account that economic
and social development and poverty eradication are the
first and overriding priorities of the developing country
Parties”.
Overview - What are in the UNFCCC
and the KP on DTT?
 The Article 3.14 of the KP on commitments,
acknowledges the need to minimize the adverse
impacts of climate change on developing countries
and notes among the “issues to be considered shall
be the establishment of funding, insurance and
technology transfer”.
 Article 10.6(b) of KP recognises that adaptation
technologies would improve adaptation to climate
change.
Overview - What are in the UNFCCC
and the KP on DTT?
 Article 10.6 (c) of KP commits Parties to
“cooperate in the promotion of effective modalities
for the development, application and diffusion of,
and take all practicable steps to promote, facilitate
and finance practices and processes pertinent to
climate change, in particular to developing
countries including the formulation of policies and
programmes for the effective transfer of
environmentally sound technologies that are
publicly owned or in the public domain and the
creation of enabling environment for the private
sector, to promote and enhance the transfer of
access to, environmentally sound technologies.
Overview - What are in the UNFCCC
and the KP on DTT?
 Furthermore, Article 11.1 (b) of the KP commits
developed countries Parties and other developed
Parties in Annex II to the Convention to “provide
financial resources, including the transfer of
technology, needed by developing countries to meet
the agreed full incremental costs of advancing the
implementation of existing commitments under
Article 4.1 of the Convention
Overview - What are in the UNFCCC
and the KP on DTT?
 The design of Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol i.e.
Clean Development Mechanism should also lead to
the transfer of environmentally sound
technologies.
Overview - What do we See?
 Several decisions have been made since the adoption of the
UNFCCC and later the KP
 In Marrakech, 2001 the Expert Group on Technology
Transfer (EGTT) was established and with a 5-year
mandate
 EGTT was placed under the Subsidiary Body for Scientific
and Technological Advice (SBSTA) to provide advice and
recommendations to SBSTA
 The Special Climate Change Fund was also agreed upon –
but with limited funds
Overview- The EGTT


Over the years (since 2001) EGTT has produced very
good technical papers
But has not lived to the expectations of developing
countries in terms of actual technology development and
transfer to developing countries. Because the EGTT under
the SBSTA has failed to addresses the following

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The setting up of specific technology goals
Development of indicators and accounting systems to track
progress on technology transfer?
Unable to undertake implementation actions under SBSTA
because of the limitations of the SBSAT itself.
In 2006 in Nairobi, developing countries did not see the
need to renew the mandate of the EGTT
Overview-EGTT
 In Bali in 2007 an agreement was reached to renew the
mandate of the EGTT
 Now the EGTT reports both to the SBSTA and the
Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI).
 The difference here is that Parties now recognize that
implementation of the UNFCCC and the KP commitments
on technology development and transfer has not been met
and that there is the need to urgently address DTT
implementation under SBI.
 As a consequence the COP by its decision 4/CP.13 called
the GEF to elaborate on a strategic programme to scale up
investment in technology development and transfer.
DTT under the Bali Action Plan (BAP)
 Decision 1/CP.13 - the BAP rightly recognizes again
that development and transfer of technologies to
developing countries as one of the means to support
implementation of actions on mitigation and
adaptation to climate change.
 DTT is now one of the four major building blocks to
be discussed and agreed upon in Copenhagen.
Achievements After Bali
 Following from Bali (4/CP.13), the GEF has now
elaborated a strategic programme aimed at scaling
up development and transfer of technologies – the
Poznan Strategic Programme
 GEF has already issued a call for proposals (CFP) for
pilot technology development and transfer projects –
CFP closes in August 2009
Key issues under the
Bali Action Plan on DTT
 Effectiveness of tools & mechanisms for technology co-
operation
 Removal of barriers to promoting technology transfer
including:




Financing
Intellectual property rights
Tariffs and non-tariffs
Capacity building
 Ways to accelerate deployment, diffusion and transfer of
technologies
 Co-operation on research and development
What Africa Should look for
under the BAP?
 Call for the creation of an international
framework agreement for technology
development and transfer or new mechanism
that addresses both mitigation and adaptation, in
order to boost the effectiveness in innovation and
investment required around the world to address
climate change.
What Africa Should look for
under the BAP
 This DTT mechanism of framework agreement should:
 Be informed by the shared vision for long-term cooperative
action, including a long-term global goal for emission
reductions, to achieve the ultimate objective of the
Convention and the urgent need for adaptation to the
impacts of climate change
 Include an incentive package to scale up of development
and transfer of technology to developing country Parties in
order to promote access to affordable environmentally
sound technologies through creation of additional value
and crediting for participation in technology development,
deployment, diffusion and transfer for greenhouse
emissions reduction and enhanced resilience to impacts of
climate change
What Africa Should look for
under the BAP?
 Incorporate an institutional mechanism and tools for
supporting, supervising, monitoring and evaluating the
effectiveness of the implementation of agreed actions on
technology development and transfer;
 Provide for a compliance and enforcement regime for
development and transfer of technologies linked to
quantified emissions reduction and limitation
commitments and increased resilience of communities
and ecosystems to the impact of climate change
 Support capacity building and capacity development in
developing countries for technology development,
adoption, deployment, diffusion and transfer including,
inter alia, support for national systems of innovation
What Africa Should look for
under the BAP?
 Ensure improved access to new and additional, adequate,
predictable, appropriate, equitable and sustainable publicsector financial resources and investments to support
mitigation and adaptation and technology development and
transfer and technology cooperation
 Promote substantial private-sector participation, finance
and investments in technologies for mitigation and
adaptation
 Ensure protection of intellectual property rights that
guarantees access to and use of technologies by avoiding
over-protectionism
What Africa Should look for
under the BAP?
 Ensure access to technology information, including in
particular the costs and performance of technologies
 Provide for international programme for joint or
collaborative research, demonstration and early stage
deployment of technologies
 Provide guidance on national/domestic government
policies needed to, notably creating a higher level of longterm policy certainty


(a) over future demands for low carbon technologies, upon which the
private sector including the industry’s decision makers can rely, and
(b) for private financing of technologies for adaptation.
What Africa Should look for
under the BAP?
 Pay specific attention to the technology needs of (a)
major emerging and big economies, (b) emerging but
small developing economies, and (c) least developed
countries, and (d) small island developing states;
among developing countries
 Promote and finance south-south cooperation
 Support mechanism for early action on sector specific
technology innovation, development, demonstration,
massive deployment and transfer.
What Africa Should look for
under the BAP?
 Technology Development and Transfer Aspects of
the Shared Vision
 A medium to long-term vision for the entire technology
cycle from innovation through to application and transfer
be guided and driven by medium to long-term global goal
based on:


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
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Level of emission reductions, to achieve the ultimate objective of
the Convention
Quantum of technology development, deployment and diffusion
required
Urgent need for adapting to the impacts of climate change
Level of finance and investment required
Extent of sectoral coverage, and
Level of participation by all technology development and transfer
actors
What Africa Should look for
under the BAP?
 Incentive Package for Added Value and Crediting
 In order to promote access to and use of affordable environmentally
sound technologies there is the need to create additional value
and crediting for participation in technology development,
deployment, diffusion and transfer. International mechanism
could be put in place to assess and include an incentive package to
scale up the development and transfer of technology to developing
country Parties.
 The international mechanism could lead to rewards/credits for
participation in development and transfer climate friendly
technologies through a link with Parties commitment in terms of
quantified emission limitation and reduction obligations.
 Promoting and providing direct incentives for technology
programmes such as supporting international technology
cooperative development networks, national policies/actions, certify
credits for special and priority technology programmes, and
managing long-term regulatory risk.
What Africa Should look for
under the BAP?
New Mechanisms for a DTT – Institutional and
Financial
 The new mechanisms to operate under the authority
and guidance of the COP and be accountable to it. It
shall aim to achieve:




Accessibility, affordability, appropriateness and adaptability of
technologies required by developing countries for enhanced
action on mitigation and adaptation;
Provision of full costs and full incremental costs, as per Article
4.3 of the Convention;
Adequacy and predictability of funds for technology transfer;
Removal of barriers for technology development and transfer
What Africa Should look for
under the BAP?
Institutional Mechanism – Executive Body
comprising and be supported by:
 Strategic Planning Committee to: develop strategy; provide
regular guidance; assess and elaborate technology-related matters;
continuously evaluate progress; and develop updates for the
Technology Action Plan,
 Technical Panels to generate and compile current expert
information related to: capacity building; policies and measures;
intellectual property cooperation; sectoral, cross-sectoral, and cross
cutting cooperation; assessment, monitoring and compliance; and
other necessary topics.
 Verification Group to verify the financial and technological
contributions made to the mechanism in accordance with the overall
“measurable, reportable, verifiable” requirement of Decision 1/CP.13.
 Secretariat to support and facilitate the activities of the Executive
Body.
What Africa Should look for
under the BAP?
Technology Action Plan
 The Technology Action Plan should define specific policies,
actions, and funding requirements for all relevant
technologies under the following classifications:



Public domain technologies
Patented technologies.
Future technologies.
 The Action Plan should support the establishment of
national and regional technology centers of excellence
and should reinforce north-south, south-south and
triangular cooperation, including joint research and
development.
What Africa Should look for
under the BAP?
Financial Mechanism - Multilateral Climate Technology Fund
(MCTF)
 This fund will provide technology-related financial requirements as
determined by the Executive Body and will operate under the COP
 The MCTF shall be financed, among others, by assessed contributions
from Annex II Parties. Contributions to the mechanism shall be
additional to other financial transfers to non-Annex I Parties and shall
meet the costs incurred by such Parties.
 An agreed proportion of contributions by developed country Parties
and other Parties included in Annex II of the Convention to bilateral
and regional co-operation may be considered as contributions to the
MCTF, provided that such co-operation is consistent with the policies
and scope of the mechanism.
What Africa Should look for
under the BAP?
Financial Mechanism - Multilateral Climate Technology Fund
(MCTF)
 Financial transfers to the MCTF shall be counted as measurable,
reportable and verifiable commitments under para 1.b(ii) of the Bali
Action Plan. Any funding not under the authority and guidance of the
UNFCCC shall not be regarded as the fulfillment of commitments by
developed countries under Art. 4.3 of the Convention or decision
1/CP.13.
 The MCTF shall cover, inter alia, eligible costs of activities approved by
the Executive Body; administrative costs of the Executive Body,
Secretariat, and Trustee or Trustees; and costs associated with other
specific decisions of the Conference of the Parties.
What Africa Should look for
under the BAP?
Financial Mechanism - Multilateral Climate
Technology Fund (MCTF)
 In the context of the enhanced multilateral financial
mechanism proposed by the Group of 77 & China, the
MCTF shall be managed by a Trustee or Trustees, selected
through a process of open bidding, who shall have fiduciary
responsibility and administrative competence to manage
the MCTF, and shall hold in trust, the funds, assets, and
receipts that constitute the fund, and shall comply with the
principles and modalities for their management and
disbursement as stipulated by the Conference of the
Parties.
Key Issues for Considerations and
Regional Strategy Development
 What technology development and transfer issues being






discussed in the negotiations are key challenges for African
countries?
What are the key issues Africa needs to focus on?
What are the key sectors Africa needs to focus on for DTT?
What can the AMCEN and for that matter AU, ECA an
other regional institutions do to support actions by African
Countries on DTT?
Does Africa require a regional technology action plan that
covers both mitigation and adaptation technology needs, if
yes which regional institution leads and host it?
How quickly can Africa move to low emissions economies?
What policy approach is needed in the Africa to accelerate
technology transfer (climate only, or additional
instruments?)
Key Issues for Considerations and
Regional Strategy Development
 What level of investments are required for sustainable





technologies development and transfer within Africa?
How will Africa address the issue of intellectual property
rights?
What form of international R&D co-operation should take
place, should it be inside Convention or outside?
What should be the role and ultimate scope of carbon
markets and CDM in DTT?
What incentive mechanisms should be put in place to
stimulate private sector participation in DTT to Africa?
What institutional arrangements should be put in place
both at the national, sub-regional & international level?
Proposed Elements for Africa Joint Action Plan for
Implementation of DTT
1. Action plan for Technology development, deployment,
diffusion and transfer for mitigation and adaptation in
Africa


Legislative instruments
Institutional Arrangements




For example, formation of Africa Technical Expert Panel on
DTT (TOR to be developed, but should include identification and
development of bankable sector-wide projects across member states)
Capacity development dimensions
Development of a marshal plan including
partnership/collaboration platforms, private sector engagement
and monitoring and evaluation schemes
Funding mechanisms
Proposed Elements for Africa Joint Action Plan for
Implementation of DTT
2.
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

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Support mechanism for policy formulation including
international negotiations
Development of technical papers by experts within the
sub-region, may be by Africa Technical Expert Panel on
DTT
Assist member countries to develop the necessary “pull”
mechanisms or enabling environment
Support harmonization of regional DTT policy
frameworks
Support and develop regional positions on DTT
Thank You
CONTACT DETAILS:
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