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Transcript
PHYS-575/CSI-655 DRAFT Syllabus:12/24/2012
Introduction to Physics and Chemistry of the Atmosphere
Mondays, 7:20-10:00pm, Robinson Hall, Room B108
Spring Semester, 2013
Michael E. Summers
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PHYS-575/CSI-655
Introduction to Physics and Chemistry of the Atmosphere
Catalog description: Introduction to basic physical and chemical
processes that operate in the Earth’s atmosphere. Emphasis on those
concepts that provide a global description of the current atmospheric
state and those processes that relate to global change and
atmospheric evolution. Topics include equilibrium structure,
radiative transfer models, thermodynamics of various atmospheric
layers, and the various processes defining these layers.
5/24/2017
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PHYS-575/CSI-655
Introduction to Physics and Chemistry of the Atmosphere
This course will focus on the physical and chemical
processes that control the state, variability, and
long-term evolution of the atmosphere.
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PHYS 575/CSI 655
Introduction to Physics and Chemistry of the Atmosphere
Specific Course Goals:
To provide the student with:
1) an overview of the physical and chemical processes which
control the state and evolution of planetary atmospheres.
2) an understanding of the key scientific discoveries and
remaining unanswered questions in atmospheric science.
3) an overview of the primary scientific principles and
analytical tools used in atmospheric science studies,
including both remote and in-situ techniques.
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PHYS-575/CSI-655
Introduction to Physics and Chemistry of the Atmosphere
Topics will include an overview of the history of the
Earth’s atmosphere, and the Earth’s atmosphere in the
context of comparative planetary atmospheres.
Topics Include:
Atmospheric thermodynamics
Hydrostatics
Phase transformations of water
Radiation transfer
Spectroscopy
Cloud physics
Atmospheric chemistry
Atmospheric motions
Climate Change
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PHYS-575/CSI-655
Introduction to Physics and Chemistry of the Atmosphere
An overview of the long-term evolution of the
atmosphere, including including forcing by natural
and anthropogenic effects, will be considered.
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PHYS 575/CSI 655
Introduction to Physics and Chemistry of the Atmosphere
Class format will consist of:
(1) lectures covering material in the required text,
(2) homework assignments designed to illustrate various
aspects of topics encountered in the lectures and
readings,
(3) reading assignments both from the text and
supplemental material,
(4) group discussion,
(5) and a term paper which focuses on a topic in
atmospheric science chosen by the student in
consultation with the instructor.
There are no stupid questions!!
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Required Text:

Atmospheric Science,
An Introductory Survey

John M. Wallace
Peter V. Hobbs
Academic Press, 2006
ISBN 0-12-732951-X


All lecture notes will be available on Blackboard after the
corresponding lecture.
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PHYS 575/CSI 655
Introduction to Physics and Chemistry of the Atmosphere
Grading Policy:
 *Homework = 30%,
 **Two in-semester exams = 30%
 **Term Paper = 30%
 ***Class participation = 10%
*Homework mainly from end-of-chapter questions.
**You are responsible for all material from text, and
any additional assigned readings.
*** There will be material discussed in the lectures
that is not included in the on-line lecture notes.
You are responsible for this material on exams.
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PHYS-575/CSI-655 Exams
Tentative Exam Schedule:
 February 28 – Exam #1
March 11-15 - GMU Spring Break
 April 18 – Exam #2
Term Paper Presentations:
 May 13 - Final Exam
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Instructor and Contact info:
Michael E. Summers
Science and Tech I, Room 303B
Email: [email protected]
SPACS Phone: (703) 993-1280
FAX: (703) 993-1269
Office Hours (with appointment)
Tuesday: 3:00-4:00pm
Other times available, but please
confirm in advance.
5/24/2017
A picture on its way to Pluto
11
Required Term Paper (30% of grade)
 A term paper (or project) is required in this course. The topic
is chosen by the student with close consultation with the
instructor.
 Generally, the term paper topic will be related to topics
discussed in the lectures, but a fair degree of latitude will be
allowed in the students’ choice.
 I will be glad to help students pick a topic, to narrow its focus,
and to help find reference materials.
 Students are encouraged to choose a topic that fascinates them
and to begin working on their paper within the first few weeks
of the semester, and to give the class a brief update every 2-3
weeks.
 Term papers are almost always the highlight of the course.
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Term Paper Format
The term paper must follow standard guides for research papers,
and have the following sections:
 Title
 Abstract
 Introduction & background
 Body of paper - with a significant number (10-15) references
to primary literature and/or review articles. This may include
discussion of scientific theories, observations, and/or methods.
 Conclusions
 Figures (& captions) are important in the body of the paper.
 Primary References (not Wikipedia)
The paper must be typed, double spaced, and have ~ 15-25
pages of text, not including figures, and at least 3 figures (may
have more, include captions). Please number all pages.
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Suggested Term Paper Themes, Spring 2013
Climate Change
 Planetary Atmospheres
(including extra-solar planets)

Term paper/project – important dates:
February 26 – Tentative title/topic due
March 19– Abstract (1 paragraph), outline, and key references due
April 23 – 2 minute update
May 13 – Final paper due, and a 10-15 minute oral presentation
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Tutorials
Tutorials serve as a brief review and/or refresher of focused
topics that the students have likely encountered previously in their
education, but usually in a different context. For example, most
physics students have taken a course in Thermodynamics or at
least have covered the key thermodynamic concepts in their
Freshman Intro to Physics course. Yet I’ve found that almost all
physics students remember very little in this area.
The Thermo tutorial reviews the Ideal Gas Law, State Variables
(like Temperature, Pressure, Internal Energy, Entropy, Enthalpy,
Gibbs energy) the First and Second Laws, Adiabatic and Diabatic
processes, the concept of a heat engine, heat capacities and their
relationship to atomic/molecular properties, and phase changes.
Tutorials usually takes about half an hour or so and provides
enough refresher to then tackle the applications to the atmosphere.
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Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM)
Hampton University (Lead)
UAF, LASP/CU, SDL, NRL, GATS, GMU, BAF, NASA
Noctilucent Clouds:
 Earth’s highest clouds (82 km!)
 Clouds at the “edge of space”
 Indicators of climate change?
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Launched: April 25, 2007
http://aim.hamptonu.edu/index.html
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New Horizons Pluto Mission
Southwest Research Institute (Lead)
JHU-APL, Ball, Boeing, DoE, Lockeed-Martin, JPL, GMU,
Stanford U, U. of Colorado-LASP
Launched: 17 January 2006
5/24/2017
Pluto Flyby: 14 July 2015
17
5/24/2017
Mission Website: http://marsairplane.larc.nasa.gov/
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PHYS-575/CSI-655 Topics
Spring Semester, 2013
Corresponds to Chapters in Wallace & Hobbs
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
Introduction and Overview of the Atmosphere
The Earth System
Atmospheric Thermodynamics
Atmospheric Radiation
Atmospheric Chemistry
Clouds
Atmospheric Dynamics
Weather – brief coverage
The Boundary Layer – brief coverage
Climate Dynamics
This will be a fast-paced course! It will be very
important to keep up with the chapter readings.
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(1) Overview of the Atmosphere






The atmosphere as a complex
physical system
Survey of major & minor gases
Sources and sinks of gases
(biology, chemistry,
geochemistry)
Vertical T, P, N structure;
Atmospheric layers: Troposphere,
Stratosphere, Mesosphere,
Thermosphere/ionosphere
Survey of planetary atmospheres
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(2) The Earth System
Atmospheric Structure & Composition
 External Influences
 Weather and climate
 Atmospheric development
and co-evolution of life.

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Biogeochemical Cycles




Life and the atmosphere
Biogeochemical cycles
Climate forcing
Ice ages
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(3) Atmospheric Thermodynamics





Ideal gas law
Hydrostatic balance
Parcel concepts
The dry lapse rate
Entropy, potential
temperature, and available
energy
The Influence of Water
• Moisture in the atmosphere
• Saturated lapse rate
• Clouds
• The life of a raindrop
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(4) Atmospheric Radiation




Basic concepts, flux,
intensity of radiation
Blackbody radiation
Radiative transfer
equation
The greenhouse
equation
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Spectroscopy
Absorption and Emission
by molecules
 Heating rates
 Greenhouse effect
 Scattering by gases and
aerosols

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(5) Atmospheric Chemistry




Intro to chemical reactions
Thermodynamics of
reactions
Equilibrium versus nonequilibrium chemistry
The sun and atmospheric
chemistry
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v442/n7099/images/442145a-f1.2.jpg
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Stratospheric Ozone
Ozone chemistry
 Catalytic cycles
 Chemistry and dynamics
 Ozone Hole

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(6) Cloud Microphysics
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(7) Atmospheric Dynamics
Conservation of mass
 Material derivative
 Conservation of
momentum (fundamental
forces)
 Equation of motion

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Non-inertial Reference Frames





Effects of rotation
(apparent forces)
Coordinate systems
Geostrophy and balanced
flow (diagnostic
equations)
Pressure coordinates
Thermodynamic energy
equation
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(8) Weather Systems








Quantifying effects of rotation
Linearized equations
Quasi-geostrophy
Atmospheric waves
Boundary layers, friction and
stresses
Turbulence and mixing
The planetary boundary layer
Instabilities and wave breaking
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(9) The Atmospheric Boundary Layer
 Turbulence
 The Surface Energy
Balance
 Vertical Structure and
Evolution
 Special Effects
 The Planetary Boundary
Layer
Stably stratified flow over a ridge (side view)
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(10) Climate Dynamics
 The Present Day Climate
 Climate Variability
 Climate Equilibria,
Sensitivity, and Feedbacks
 Greenhouse Warming
 Climate Monitoring and
Prediction
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Climate Change






History of the Atmosphere
Future Changes
Global warming (short term,
buildup of greenhouse
gases)
Global warming (long-term,
runaway greenhouse)
Climate forcing (solar,
orbital, internal)
Ozone depletion and human
activity
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Term Paper Suggestions
I. Related to the current Earth
Atmospheric Phenomena:
 Weather systems
 Hurricanes, Tornadoes
 Optics, Aurora, airglow
 Atmosphere – ocean effects
 El Nino
5/24/2017
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Term Paper Suggestions
I. Related to the current Earth
Global Atmospheric Change:
 Causes of climate change (e.g. solar forcing, industrial
emissions)
 Ozone depletion and consequent biological effects
 Greenhouse models and long-term prediction
 Regional effects of climate change
Global Atmospheric Stability:
 Ice ages
 The “runaway greenhouse”
 Chaos in the climate system
 DMS thermostat
 Gaia hypothesis (homeostatic control)
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Term Paper Suggestions
II. Related to the origin and evolution of the Earth’s Atmosphere:
Earth’s early atmosphere:
 Source(s) of the early atmosphere (e.g. volcanoes, comets)
 Greenhouse effect, i.e., role of CO2, H2O, CH4 on surface
temperature
 Faint Sun Paradox
Asteroid and comet impacts:
 Effects of asteroid impacts on atmosphere and climate
 Escape of light gasses from top of atmosphere
 Formation of oxygen atmosphere from water
 Photosynthesis and oxygen; Ozone layer with low O2 abundances
 Stromatolites and atmospheric gasses
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Term Paper Suggestions
II. Related to the origin and evolution of the Earth’s Atmosphere:
Ice ages
 Iceline problem, unstable to both + and – solar changes.
 Runaway ice age and sensitivity to solar output.
Snowball Earth and the effects on the Atmosphere
 How fast can ocean and atmosphere freeze? Will thawing
overshoot and create a hot and violent atmosphere?
Greenhouse effect
 Greenhouse effect at several points in Earth’s history and future
Atmospheric shielding
 Early Earth and hot sun
 Supernova, cosmic rays, effects and frequency
 Induced mutations and effects on surface life
Biogeochemical cycles (oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, sulfur)
5/24/2017
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Term Paper Suggestions
III. Mars and Venus
Venus:
 Runaway greenhouse
 Volcanoes
 Surface chemistry & thermal chemistry
 Cloud physics and chemistry
Mars:
 Stability of water on the surface, e.g. source of “gullies”
 Evolution of the atmosphere
 Where’s all the water?
 Atmospheric dynamics
 Atmospheric chemistry
 Dust storms
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Term Paper Suggestions
IV. Outer solar system atmospheres
Jupiter:
 Atmospheric dynamics of bands and
zones, spots
 Colors of clouds: role of chemistry
and cloud physics
Europa’s Atmosphere:
 State of transient atmosphere.
Subsurface liquid water?
 Stability over long time periods
Io: supersonic winds:
 Atmosphere/plasma torus
interactions
 Surface colors from atmospheric
gases
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Term Paper Suggestions
IV. Outer solar system
atmospheres
Titan:
 Analog of early Earth’s atmosphere
 Source of clouds
 Surface/atmosphere/seas interaction
Pluto and Charon
 Stability of atmosphere on Pluto,
Charon (& KBO’s)
 Hydrodynamic escape of atmospheres
 Low temperature atmospheric
chemistry
 Radiative/convective models.
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First Assignment (Monday, Jan. 22, 2013)
Read: Wallace & Hobbs, Chapters 1 & 2
Read: D. Bodanis article “It’s in the air…”
Chapter 1 problems:
1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.17, 1.18
Due: Monday, February 5
For Problem 1.6, write 1-2 sentence explanation
Please look at the problems by next Monday (1/29) to
see if you have any questions.
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Suggested Readings

The Physics of Atmospheres, John T Houghton, 2nd edition,
Cambridge,1986.

An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics,
David G. Andrews, Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Physics and Chemistry of the Solar System, 2nd Edition, J.S. Lewis,
Academic Press, 2004.

Theory of Planetary Atmospheres, 2nd Edition, J.W. Chamberlain, D.M.
Hunten, Academic Press, 1986.

Photochemistry of Planetary Atmospheres, Y.L. Yung, W.B. Demore,
Oxford, 1998.

Earth: Evolution of a Habitable World, J. I. Lunine, Cambridge, 1998.
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Useful Websites:
American Meteorological Society:
http://www.ametsoc.org/
National Aeronautics and Space Administration:
http://www.nasa.gov
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration:
http://www.noaa.gov/
The Weather Channel:
http://www.weather.com/
The NASA Astrobiology Institute:
http://nai.nasa.gov/
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Important Dates:
January 29 – Enrollment Deadline. This is the
last day to add into a course. Students may not
register into any section after this date. No
exceptions. This is also the last day to drop a
course without losing tuition money.
February 22 – Drop Deadline. This is the last
day a student may drop a course. After this
date, students may withdraw from a course,
but only according to strict university
guidelines.
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Academic Integrity
GMU is an Honor Code university; please see the University Catalog for a
full description of the code and the honor committee process. The principle
of academic integrity is taken very seriously and violations are treated
gravely.
What does academic integrity mean in this course? Essentially this: when
you are responsible for a task, you will perform that task. When you rely on
someone else’s work in an aspect of the performance of that task, you will
give full credit in the proper, accepted form.
Another aspect of academic integrity is the free play of ideas. Vigorous
discussion and debate are encouraged in this course, with the firm
expectation that all aspects of the class will be conducted with civility and
respect for differing ideas, perspectives, and traditions. When in doubt (of
any kind) please ask for guidance and clarification.
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Students with Disabilities
If you are a student with a disability and you need
academic accommodations, please see me and
contact the Office of Disability Resources at
703/993-2474.
All academic accommodations must be arranged
through that office.
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Other Useful Campus Resources
WRITING CENTER: A114 Robinson Hall; (703) 993-1200;
http://writingcenter.gmu.edu
UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES “Ask a Librarian”
http://library.gmu.edu/mudge/IM/IMRef.html
COUNSELING AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES (CAPS):
(703) 993-2380;
http://caps.gmu.edu
The University Catalog,
http://catalog.gmu.edu
is the central resource for university policies affecting student,
faculty, and staff conduct in university affairs.
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