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Transcript
Grammar Notes
Parts of a Sentence
I. Sentence Structure
A. Typical – SUBJECT (and its modifiers) / PREDICATE (verb part with
modifiers and complements) – S / V
1. Mr. Morton / was very nervous.
2. Mr. Morton / was.
3. I / ran.
4. The man with the tall hat / jumped over the fence
*S / V / IO / DO
B. Atypical – unusual sentence structure (not typical)
1. Sentence beginning with “here” or “there” = inverted (v/s)
a. Here are the doughnuts.
b. There were fourteen reasons.
2. Sentences beginning with a prep phrase occasionally are
inverted
a. On your desk are the papers for the test. (v/s)
3. Questions:
a. Inverted (v/s) – Where are those old magazines?
b. Subject Sandwich (v/s/v)
Did you like the video?
4. Commands or Requests: Sentences with an understood
(implied or not stated) subject
a. Please turn off the lights.
b. Johnny, please shut your flapping cake hole.
c. Get yourself a blue or black pen or pencil for the test.
1
Grammar Notes
Parts of a Sentence
II. Steps for Finding Parts of a Sentence
1. Cross out “here” or “there” at the beginning of a sentence – never the
subject of the sentence – think inverted (v/s)
2. Put parenthesis around prepositional phrases (S/V/IO/DO are never
inside a prep phrase)
3. Find Verb Phrase – Underline it twice (be sure to look for compound
verbs and all parts of the verb phrase)
a. ask “What’s happening?” = Action Verb or find a linking
verb or state of being verb (use cheat sheet)
b. look for auxiliary (helping) verbs preceding the main verb (do
not include adverbs – not, -ly, etc.)
4. Find Subject – Underline it once (be sure to look for compound subjects)
- Ask “Who?” or “What?” before the verb
5. Find the Direct Object – Circle and Label it
- Ask S/V what?
6. Find the Indirect Object – Circle and Label it
Ask S/V/DO to or for whom? – Never inside a prep phrase
2
Grammar Notes
Parts of a Sentence
III. Names of the Parts
 A sentence is a group of words expressing a complete thought.
 2 parts = subject + predicate
o Must have both parts to be complete
A) Verb Phrase- Shows the action or state of being of the subject
1. Includes all preceding auxiliary verbs
2. Excludes anything not a verb (adverbs-ly)
 Mr. Morton was slowly walking his cat.
 Not is not a verb (I should not have talked.)
B) The Subject (Actor, Actress) – Most significant no0un or pronoun in a
sentence that completes the action of the verb the linking verb.
 Mr. Morton walked down the street.
 Mr. Morton is very nervous.
C) Complements- complete the predicate (verb part) of the sentence.
1. Direct object (DO) - the noun or pronoun that receives the action of the
verb- answers the question “what?” After the S/V
 I lent my calculator to April.
2. Indirect object (IO) – noun or pronoun that the action of the verb is done
for
- Like an understood prep phrase (w/out prep.)
- Answers the question “to whom?” or “for whom?” after S/V/DO
*HINT: if there is no DO there will be no IO.*
 I lent April my calculator.
3
Grammar Notes
Parts of a Sentence
D) Phrases- a group of words that function together as one part of speech
- Phrases do not have both subject and verb
1. Prep Phrases- a group of words that begin with a preposition, ends
with a noun or pronoun, which we call the Object of the Preposition(OP)
and includes everything in between, like adjectives and possibly adverbs
- Function as an adjective (describing a noun/pronoun) or an
adverb (describing a verb)
 The boy (in the blue sweatshirt) is my brother.
 We will walk (over the path) (through the woods).
2. Verbal Phrases- phrase that includes verbs (action verbs), but those verbs
are not showing any action (b/c they don’t have an actor/actress.)
- Instead they function as adverbs, adjectives, or nouns.
a. Infinitive- Verbs preceded by the preposition “to”
To + noun = prep phrase
To + verb = infinitive
- Infinitives can have 1 of 3 possible functions in the sentence.
 Noun- Jenny wanted [to run.] (S/V/IO/DO)
 Adv.- Jenny lives [to run.] *in order*
 Adj.- Jenny has the ability [to run] fast.
 Infinitive phrases: because an infinitive has a
verb in it, its phrases can have anything you
might find in the predicate part of the sentence
(complements –IO, DO; modifiers –adj, adv, prep
phrase, etc)
*HINT: Find hardware of sentence*
4
Grammar Notes
Parts of a Sentence
b. Gerund- a verb ending in “ing” that is functioning as a noun (the
name of an activity.)
*Shows NO action*
Sub: * Running is Jenny’s hobby.
DO: * Jenny loves running.
OP:
* The purpose of running is so Jenny can stay shapely.
IO:
* Jenny gives running the most effort.
*Gerund Phrase: because a gerund is a verb, its phrase can have
anything you might find in the predicate part of the sentence
(complements – IO, DO; modifiers – adj, adv, prep phrase, etc)
 Playing football in the cold in November takes
dedication. (Complements- DO; modifiers- adj, adv pp)
 I enjoy giving students candy for Halloween.
c. Participle- part of a verb phrase (shows no action because it
doesn’t have a helping verb nor a subject.)
- Parts of a verb will end in -ing, -ed, -en or some other
irregular past tense form.
- Function as an adjective (describing the noun or the pronoun
nearest to it.)
 [Flying] goose.
 [Dried] fruit.
 [Fallen] tree.
*Hint: single world participles (like simple adjectives,
usually come directly in front of the noun/pronoun they
modify)
*Participial Phrases continued on next page*
5
Grammar Notes
Parts of a Sentence
1.
2.
3.
4.
* Participle Phrases: because a participle is a verb, its phrase
can have anything you might find in the predicate part of the
sentence (complements – IO, DO; modifiers – adj, adv, prep
phrase, etc)
EX: Swinging her book bag, Mary Ellen walked home.
The dogs collected by the dog catcher were barking loudly.
*Hints for finding participial phrases.*
Often set of by commas (non-essential = can’t make the noun
more specific because it is specific already)
Can be anywhere in the sentence – must be as close as
possible to the noun/pronoun they are modifying to avoid
dangling and misplaced participles
Must end before the next pillar/piece of hardware holding the
sentence together (S/V/IO/DO)
Can be taken out of the sentence and the sentence will be
complete.
E) Clauses: Clauses are like phrases except for one big difference
- clauses have a subject and a verb, phrases do not.
 A group of words that contain both a subject and a verb
There are 2 main types of Clauses:
1. Independent Clauses: independent (or main) clauses are in a group of
words that contain both a subject and a very and that can stand alone as
a sentence. In reality a simple sentence is an independent clause.
2. Subordinate Clauses: subordinate (or dependent) are groups of words
that contain both a subject and a verb but cannot stand alone as a
sentence. They are dependent on an independent clause (they need to be
attached to one).
Examples:
before you know it
Because I told him
After the show it over
*Notice, that without the first word in each clause, the group of words
would be a sentence. Subordinate clauses begin with words that cause them
to need an independent clause to become a sentence.*
6
Grammar Notes
Parts of a Sentence
There are 3 main types of Subordinate Clauses
1. Adjective Clause: a subordinate clause that is used as an adjective
– to describe a noun or pronoun
Examples:
The lamp, which was priceless, lay smashed on the floor.
Bob leaned over to pick up the glass that was on the rug.
Bob went to see the woman who owned the lamp.
Rules:
 Adjective clauses begin with relative pronouns which
function as the subject of the clause. You can think of them as
relative clauses, because they are related to the nouns they
modify. (relative pronouns – who, whom, whose, which,
that)
 Adjective clauses follow the noun or pronoun that they
modify. When using adjective clauses in writing, make sure
that you place them directly behind the word they are
describing to avoid any confusion (dangling modifiers).
2. Adverb Clauses: a subordinate clause that functions as an adverb
– modifying a verb, adjective, or adverb – tend to explain how,
where, when, why, and if
*adverb clauses begin with subordinate conjunctions – check
your cheat sheet.
Examples:
Bob felt sick when she told him the value of the lamp.
If he had known how much the lamp was worth, he would have
been more careful.
He was in more trouble than he ever thought possible.
Rules/hints:
 Adverb clauses are tacked on to the beginning or end of the
sentence.
 Adverb clauses that begin a sentence are set of from the
main, independent clause by a comma to help avoid
confusion – begin with the subordinating conjunction at the
beginning of the sentence and will end at the comma.
 Adverb clauses are tacked on after the main, independent
clause begin with the subordinating conjunction and will
end at the end of the sentence.
7
Grammar Notes
Parts of a Sentence
3. Noun Clause: a subordinating clause that is used as a noun (very
much like gerund phrases)
Examples:
I can’t explain what he did. (N-DO)
Whoever broke the lamp must pay for it. (N-S)
Bob realized that he was a clumsy ox. (N-DO)
The lamp was being mailed to whoever ordered it. (N-OP)
Rules/hints:
 Noun clauses can function as any noun in any clause,
including subject, complement (DO, IO, PN), or the object
of the preposition (OP) – Subj. and DO are most common
 Noun clauses are usually introduced by that, but when they
can also be introduced by what, which, who, whom, where,
when, whatever, whoever.
8
Grammar Notes
Parts of a Sentence
III. Steps for Finding Parts of a Sentence
1. Cross out “here” or “there” at the beginning of a sentence – never the
subject of the sentence – think inverted (v/s)
2. Put parenthesis around prepositional phrases (S/V/IO/DO are never
inside a prep phrase)
3. Find Verb Phrase – Underline it twice (be sure to look for compound
verbs and all parts of the verb phrase)
a. ask “What’s happening?” = Action Verb or find a linking
verb or state of being verb (use cheat sheet)
b. look for auxiliary (helping) verbs preceding the main verb (do
not include adverbs – not, -ly, etc.)
4. Find Subject – Underline it once (be sure to look for compound subjects
- Ask “Who?” or “What?” before the verb
5. Find the Direct Object – Circle and Label it
- Ask S/V what?
6. Find the Indirect Object – Circle and Label it
Ask S/V/DO to or for whom? – Never inside a prep phrase
9
Grammar Notes
Parts of a Sentence
Sentence Structure
A. Typical – SUBJECT (and its modifiers) / PREDICATE (verb part with
modifiers and complements) – S / V
1. Mr. Morton / was very nervous.
2. Mr. Morton / was.
3. I / ran.
4. The man with the tall hat / jumped over the fence
*S / V / IO / DO
B. Atypical – unusual sentence structure (not typical)
1. Sentence beginning with “here” or “there” = inverted (v/s)
a. Here are the doughnuts.
b. There were fourteen reasons.
2. Sentences beginning with a prep phrase occasionally are
inverted
a. On your desk are the papers for the test. (v/s)
3. Questions:
a. Inverted (v/s) – Where are those old magazines?
b. Subject Sandwich (v/s/v)
Did you like the video?
4. Commands or Requests: Sentences with an understood
(implied or not stated) subject
a. Please turn off the lights.
b. Johnny, please shut your flapping cake hole.
c. Get yourself a blue or black pen or pencil for the test.
10