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Language Study: Pieces of a Puzzle Mrs. Cahill Freshmen Lit Unit Essential Questions What function does our language serve? What is the importance of our audience when speaking and writing? How does understanding the rules of our language make us better communicators? Learning Targets At the end of this unit, I will be able to: construct a complete persuasive essay use a variety of sentences in my own writing identify the parts of a sentence use a variety phrases in my own writing define independent and dependent clauses Language, lan·guage ˈlaNGgwij/ the system of communication used by a community or group EVERY and ALL languages have three things in common What do you think are some things a language MUST have? Does it have to be spoken? Written? 1. All languages change. Words go in and out of style over time Some things no longer exist, and we no longer need words for them Example: Bodkin, a long pin used for fastening hair Other times, new things come into existence, and we need new words for them Example: Tweet, blog Can you think of any words or expressions used by your parents (or grandparents) that are not used by you or your friends? What are they? 2. All languages vary. Even when people speak the same language, each group uses it a little bit differently Language use often varies by location Example: soda vs. pop What are some terms that vary between different areas? Are there different ways to pronounce the same word? 3. All languages follow rules. All languages have rules, even informal ones Example: Google ---> googled BUT the rules may change, depending on who you are speaking to Not all languages follow the same rules Example: English and Spanish follow different rules We call this system of rules grammar Grammar Grammar tells us how to join our smaller parts into bigger parts and create meaning The English language can be divided into many different kinds of parts: words, phrases, sentences, and more In the past, you have probably heard the term parts of speech. What are some of the different parts of speech? Nouns: An Owner’s Manual A NOUN is used to name people, places, things, ideas— anything that needs naming Example: Truck A NOUN is often accompanied by other words—together, these words make up a NOUN PHRASE Example: The red truck Adjectives: An Owner’s Manual An ADJECTIVE modifies a NOUN, and answers the question What kind? It might also answer the questions Which one? or How many? Example: The black truck Sometimes multiple words will work together to modify your NOUN—this is called an ADJECTIVE PHRASE Example: The astonishingly black truck Verbs: An Owner’s Manual A VERB is used to show an action or state of being A VERB is often accompanied by other words—together these words make up a VERB PHRASE Example: The truck ran the stop sign. Adverbs: An Owner’s Manual An ADVERB modifies a VERB. It tells us where, when, or how a VERB happened. Example: The boy sat quietly. Sometimes multiple words will work together to modify your VERB—this is called an ADVERB PHRASE Example: The boy sat in silence.