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Transcript
Background/Some images and some notes slidesare
from the Ms. Pojer at historyteacher.net
Rome Collapsed in 476 A.D
Periods of the Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages: 500 – 1000
High Middle Ages: 1000 – 1250
Late Middle Ages: 1250 - 1500
WHY WAS EUROPE A
FRONTIER LAND IN THE
EARLY MIDDLE AGES?
• What is a frontier land?
• Location. Europe is a relatively small
area, although its impact on the modern
world has been enormous. It lies on the
western end of Eurasia.
WHY WAS EUROPE A
FRONTIER LAND IN THE
EARLY MIDDLE AGES?
• Resources. At the time of the Middle
Ages, Europe had great-untapped
potential. Dense farmland covered
much of the North, and the region’s rich
black earth was better suited for
farming.
WHY WAS EUROPE A
FRONTIER LAND IN THE
EARLY MIDDLE AGES?
• The seas that surround much of Europe
were important to its growth.
A. Fishing
B. Trade
C. Exploration of new lands
• Large rivers were ideal for trade.
Mountain streams fueled the invention
of the water wheel for powering mills.
Paving the way for
Charlemagne
• Between A.D. 400 and 700, the Germanic
tribes carved up Western Europe into small
kingdoms. **The Franks were Powerful
• **No real cities or written laws. People lived in
small communities ruled by kings.
• Frankish leader Clovis became Catholic. He
now had the support of the Romans and
church.
• 480 Clovis became King of the Franks and
conquered the province of Gaul.
Paving the way for
Charlemagne
• Circa 800 Charlemagne built an empire
reaching across France, Germany, and part
of Italy.
• The Pope proclaimed him emperor.
• We now call this the Holy Roman Empire.
He extended the Christian civilization into.
• He also set up a strong government that was
used as an example for medieval rulers.
• After his death his empire crumbled.
Pope Crowned Charlemagne
Holy Roman Emperor: Dec. 25, 800
Charlemagne: 742 to 814
Charlemagne’s Empire
Charlemagne’s Empire Collapses:
Treaty of Verdun, 843
HOW DID INVASIONS EFFECT
THE PEOPLE OF WESTERN
EUROPE?
• Attacks by the Vikings, Muslims, and
other groups of people, made kings and
emperors too weak to maintain law and
order.
• People needed a way to defend their
homes and lands.
• In response to the basic need for
protection, a new government started
called Feudalism.
Europe in the 6c
Feudalism
A political, economic, and social
system based on loyalty and
military service.
The Medieval Manor
Life on the Medieval Manor
Serfs at work
MANORIALISM
•
•
•
•
•
•
The land the vassal received was called a
manor (fief). It included a manor house,
farmland, and a group of peasants. Most
were serfs.
Each manor was self-sufficient/self
supporting.
Raised most of what they needed to live.
Grew their own food.
Raised farm animals for food and wool.
Managed trees for fuel and lumber.
**Economic system of the Middle
Ages**
MANORIALISM
• During the Early Middle Ages towns
all but disappeared from Europe.
Rome the Largest city of its time
went from 1 million people to only a
few thousand.
• Around the 10th century, things
began to improve and towns and
trade began to grow.
The Carolingian Renaissance
The Rise of European Monarchies:
England
The Road to Knighthood
KNIGHT
SQUIRE
PAGE
The Road to Knighthood
Role of a knight
Most important member of the
feudal army
Main job was fighting
Served his master
Defended Christianity
Chivalry: A Code of Honor and
Behavior
Chivalry-Honored
set of rules sworn
to by all knights.
Emphasis upon
courage, loyalty,
devotion to duty,
courtesy towards
and defense of
women, protected
the poor, the
weak the needy.
Stages of Knighthood
Stage #1 Page
(age 7+)
Learned to ride a horse
Learned manners
Had religious instruction
(learned to read)
Trained in music and dance by
the ladies of castle.
Stages of Knighthood
Stage #2 Squire
(age 12+)
Assisted knights
Became the lords devoted assistant
Took care of armor and weapons
and became skilled in their use.
Helped in tournaments
Stages of Knighthood
Stage #3 Knight
(age- when qualified)
Knighted by the King
Heraldry
Heraldry is also called a coat of
arms
Used as identification on a knight’s
shield during battle
Heraldry
What does it mean?
The Medieval Catholic Church
Monastery:
 St. Benedict – Benedictine Rule of
poverty and obedience.
 provided schools for the children of
the upper class.
 inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war.
 libraries & scriptoria to copy books
and illuminate manuscripts.
 monks  missionaries to convert the
barbarians. [St. Patrick, St. Boniface]
The Power of the Medieval Church
 bishops and abbots played a large part in
the feudal system.
 the church controlled about 1/3 of the
land in Western Europe.
 tried to reduce feudal warfare  only 40
days a year for combat.
 tithe  1/10 tax on your assets given to
the church.
 Peter’s Pence  1 penny per person
[paid by the peasants].
Role of the Church
Influence
Spread Christianity
Converted barbarians to
Christianity
Unified Europe
Monks saved knowledge from past
civilizations
Introduced Roman ideals of
government and justice
Role of the Church
Roles
Government duties
Collected taxes, ran courts, punished
criminals, and made laws
Education
monasteries were centers of learning, monks
taught reading and writing, preserved
documents, established schools.
Hospitals
Cared for the sick and needy
Inn
Guest houses were built to accommodate
travelers
Corruption
•
•
•
•
lack honesty, use of a position of trust for
dishonest gain.
involvement in feudalism led to corruption
and the fall of the church.
Awarded fiefs to wealthy church members.
Bishops and monks took on the role of
vassals.
Loyalty of the church was divided between
spiritual duties and economic duties.
A Medieval Monk’s Day
A Medieval Monastery: The Scriptorium
Illuminated Manuscripts
Romanesque Architectural Style
 Rounded Arches.
 Barrel vaults.
 Thick walls.
 Darker, simplistic interiors.
 Small windows, usually at the top of the wall.
Carcassonne: A Medieval Castle
Parts of a Medieval Castle
Late Medieval Town Dwellings
Medieval Trade
Medieval Guilds
Guild Hall
 Commercial Monopoly:
 Controlled membership
apprentice  journeyman  master craftsman
 Controlled quality of the product [masterpiece].
 Controlled prices
Medieval Guilds: A Goldsmith’s Shop
Crest of a Cooper’s Guild
• Background/images/some note
slides are from the
historyteacher.net