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Chapter 17: The American Civil War 17.1 – The Conflict Takes Shape • Lincoln called 75,000 volunteers to fight the South • Only a 90 day enlistment—many believed it would end quickly • The war lasts four years A Nation Divided • South called the conflict – The War for Southern Independence • South believed they were fighting for their rights and way of life • North fought to preserve the Union – Slavery was not the motivator Seceding States • Eight slave states remained in the Union by the start of the war • Four eventually leave—MO, MD, KY, and DE stay President Jefferson Davis • Former officer in the U.S. War w/ Mexico; former Sec. of War under Pres. Pierce • Didn’t really want the job as President • Spent much time debating with advisers than military planning General Robert E. Lee • Lincoln asked Lee to command the Union army • Lee vowed to choose what Virginia chooses; loyalty for state rather than country • Ended up the commander of the Confederate army when VA left the Union • Other great U.S. military leaders followed the same footsteps as Lee President Abraham Lincoln • Patient leader and strong military planner • People were worried about his experience, but Lincoln quickly earned the respect of others 17.2 – No Easy Victory Gen. George McClellan Gen. Robert E. Lee Attack Richmond, VA • Under pressure to make a move on the South, Lincoln finally orders an attack on Richmond, VA (100 miles away) • Union soldiers run into CSA troops near Bull Run stream in VA • Rallying behind Gen. Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, the South fought on Battle: First Bull Run (Manassas) Where: Manassas, Virginia (Bull Run Stream) Union Commander: General Irwin McDowell Confederate Commander: General Joe Johnston Date: July 21, 1861 Casualties: Union - 2,446 – Confederate - 1,600 Winner: Confederate Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson Significance of the First Battle of Bull Run/ Manassas • First large battle of the war. • Confederates routed an unprepared Union force • Casualties shocked the North and South • They now believed the war would not be quick nor easy Gen. George McClellan • Due to McDowell’s failure at Bull Run, Lincoln appoints Gen. George McClellan as commander of the Union army of the East • Named Army of the Potomac • A West Point graduate, McClellan was a great planner and organizer – Helped trained soldiers Caution, Delay, and Retreat • McClellan was too cautious a leader • He hesitated to advance on the South—almost removed by Lincoln • In March 1862, McClellan finally headed south towards Richmond • Moving too slow, Gen. Lee (CSA) ordered counteroffensives; sent Gen. Jackson to threaten D.C. • The threat on D.C. forced Lincoln to hold back more help for McClellan—McClellan never makes it to Richmond Naval Action • CSA “blockade runners” managed to slip by the Union blockade – Helped supply the CSA • Southern trade still dropped nearly 90% • To force through the blockade, CSA troops overtook an old U.S. warship called the Merrimack • They bolted it up with iron plates and renamed it the Virginia • Using the iron plates as armor, the Virginia sank two Union ships and grounded three others Monitor vs. Virginia Monitor vs. Virginia • The Union created their own ironclad—the Monitor • The Monitor and the Virginia faced off near Hampton Roads, VA • Neither ironclad was the victor due to the iron plating • The South did have to sink the Virginia when the Union captured Norfolk, VA • The North built up to fifty ironclads and changed the way ships will be built • The South never defeated the Union blockade Road to Antietam • September 1862, Lee ordered an offensive into the north (MD specifically) • Instead, Lee was pinned down at Antietam Creek after his plans were discovered wrapped around some cigars • Instead of moving fast, McClellan reacted slowly and allowed Lee to mount a defensive Battle: Antietam (Sharpsburg) Where: Sharpsburg, Maryland Union Commander: General George McClellan Confederate Commander: General Robert E. Lee When: September 17, 1862 Casualties: Union - 12,410 — Confederate 13,724 Winner: Union…barely, only because Lee withdrew from the battle A New General • Disappointed in McClellan’s failure to pursue Lee after the “victory” at Antietam, Lincoln removes him from duty • Appoints Gen. Ambrose Burnside as the new commander of the Army of the Potomac Gen. Burnside Fredericksburg, VA • In December 1862, Union forces headed to Richmond again • Lee and Burnside meet at Fredericksburg, VA where Lee’s army dug into a hill • Using the strong defensive position, CSA troops mowed down Union attacks • One of the Union’s worst defeats – 13,000 Union casualties to only 5,000 for the CSA • Burnside is removed from duty; Gen. Joseph Hooker is the new commander of the Army of the Potomac Gen. Joseph Hooker Chancellorsville, VA • With the help of Jackson, Lee was able to outmaneuver and defeat Hooker’s army • Within three days, the CSA withheld Union advancements • Lee outsmarted Hooker’s flank with an attack by Jackson • Unfortunately, Jackson was mortally wounded by his own men mistaking him for a Union soldier • Jackson dies several days later; major blow to the CSA Battle: Chancellorsville Where: Chancellorsville, VA Union Commander: General Joseph Hooker Confederate Commander: Robert E. Lee When: May 1-4, 1863 Casualties: Union - 17,278 — Confederates -12,821 Winner: Confederacy, despite losing Jackson to friendly fire Union Success in the West • Despite losing battles in the East, the Union armies in the West had success • Goal: gain control of the Mississippi River • Led by General Ulysses S. Grant • After capturing Forts Henry and Donelson in TN, Grant pushed south • Engaged with the CSA at Shiloh, TN Success in the West • Despite being initially pushed back by the CSA on the first day, Grant received reinforcements and won the Battle of Shiloh • Shiloh is known as one of the bloodiest battles in the war • During Grant’s campaign in TN, other Union armies and gunboats captured Memphis, TN and New Orleans, LA • Capturing the two cities ended any chance for the CSA to use the Mississippi River Battle: Shiloh (Pittsburg Landing) Where: Shiloh, Tennessee Union Commander: General Ulysses S. Grant Confederate Commander: General Albert Sydney Johnston When: April 6-7, 1862 Casualties: Union - 13,047 — Confederate - 10,694 Winner: Union Shiloh Generals: Grant and Johnston Check for Understanding • Why do you think Grant had more success in the West than the generals did in the east? • What made Lincoln remove generals from their command of the Army of the Potomac? 17.3 – A Promise of Freedom • The war did not begin on a premise to end slavery, but as the war went on, northerners became attracted to the idea Lincoln’s Initial Goal • Restore and preserve the Union – Especially keep the border states loyal • “If I could save the Union without freeing any slaves, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could do it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that.” The Emancipation Proclamation • Lincoln wanted to broaden his perspective on the war—emancipate (free) slaves in the Confederacy • Slaves in border states would still be enslaved • Preliminary – September 22, 1862 • Formal – January 1, 1863 Reasons for Lincoln’s Change • Weaken the South because slaves contributed much to its society • He was against slavery anyways • After the slight victory at Antietam and the Emancipation, Lincoln was able sway Europe NOT to help the South – They were still on the fence Impact of the Emancipation • No slaves were free until the states were under control of the Union again • Abolitionists were thrilled with the doctrine • Some northerners enjoyed the fact they were fighting to end slavery AND preserve the Union Check for Understanding • What was Lincoln’s initial reason to be in the war? What made it change? Why? • What was the impact of the Emancipation Proclamation? African American Contributions • Congress repealed a law in 1862 that forbade African Americans to serve in the military (free or not) • Freemen and runaways joined the Union army In the Union Army • There were all-African American units with white officers • Performed more labor than fighting; also paid less • By 1863, more African Americans troops began to fight in battle and were paid equally by 1864 54th Massachusetts Regiment • Troops recruited by Frederick Douglass • July 18, 1863, under heavy fire the 54th MA fought their way into Fort Wagner in SC • Nearly half were killed, but their bravery earned the respect from the whole Union army • Sgt. William Carney won the Medal of Honor Behind CSA Lines • African Americans still worked as slaves • With the Union coming south, more slaves fled and escaped to freedom • Nearly 25% of slaves by 1865 escaped during the war Check for Understanding • Why do you think the 54th Massachusetts regiment is considered a group of heroes? • How were African Americans treated on each side of the war? 17.4 – Hardships of War • Like all wars, the Civil War hit home as well Hard Times for Soldiers • Most were under 21; trained to march, fire weapons, face the enemy, sleep in dirty and wet clothes on the ground • Battles saw 25% or more of an army killed; technology led to this number • Medical care was almost medieval; many amputations • Poor sanitary conditions; sicknesses like pneumonia and malaria • Many fled the military due to these conditions – Killed, imprisoned, or put back if caught Technology • Guns (cannons) were more advanced; could fire shells twice as far • New cone-shaped bullets (Minie balls) were fired by rifles – More accurate and could fire at greater distances Check for Understanding • How do you think technology played a factor in making the war very difficult for soldiers on both sides? Opposition to the War in the North • Copperheads – northerners opposed to using force to bring the South back The Draft Law • Public support dwindled in the North • Union army needed men – Congress passed a draft law in 1863 – All able-bodied men between 20-45 must serve if called upon • Pay the gov’t $300 to get out of it Riots in the Cities • Many northerners weren’t happy they needed to fight to free slaves; especially immigrants – They knew they would compete with free slaves for jobs • NYC during July, 1863 saw riots where white workers attacked freemen – Other cities saw riots too • Lincoln moved to stop the riots; even suspended habeas corpus to “disloyal citizens” – The right to be charged or have a hearing before being jailed Problems in the South • Davis (CSA) failed to create a strong central gov’t • States insisted on states’ rights • Also issued a draft, but for only males with less than twenty slaves Check for Understanding • What was the Draft Law? What were the results of the Draft Law? • Compare and contrast the opposition to the war from both the South’s and North’s perspectives. The Northern Economy • Most expensive war yet • Income tax – tax on people’s earnings – Internal Revenue Bureau oversaw collections • Produced more paper money; value of the dollar decreased (inflation) The Southern Economy • Economic ruin: blockade, loss of cotton market, and expenses of war • Tax-in-kind – farmers had to hand in 10% of crops to the gov’t • Inflation was high; too much paper money printed • Blockade also made workers and civilians lose income and supplies Women in the War • Women took the jobs of men; also helped fundraise • Many served as nurses • Dorothea Dix (reform mental hospitals), Clara Barton (American Red Cross), and Sojourner Truth (abolitionist leader) all worked in hospitals Check for Understanding • Why did the southern economy pitfall so badly? Give me at least two reasons. • How did woman play a role in the Civil War? 17.5 – The War Ends • Due to Grant’s gumption, Lincoln appoints him as commander of the Union army in 1864 The Fall of Vicksburg • CSA still held a strong position at Vicksburg, MS • Unsuccessful in taking the city, Grant’s army moved on to attack Jackson, MS • They then circled back and attacked Vicksburg from the rear • After laying siege for six weeks, the CSA surrendered Battle: Vicksburg Where: Vicksburg, Mississippi Union Commander: General Ulysses Grant Confederate: General Joseph E. Johnston When: May 19 - July 4, 1863 Union Casualties: 10,142 Confederate Casualties: 9,091 Winner: Union Union Victory at Gettysburg • Lee moved his army north into PA in search for food and supplies – Then head back down and take D.C. • Gen. George Meade (USA) intercepted Lee at Gettysburg, PA • The South initially drove the Union out, but the Union stayed resilient Gettysburg • On the third day, Gen. James Longstreet (CSA) under orders from Lee made a big decision • Gen. George Pickett was ordered to lead 15,000 men across an open field to attack the Union • Known as Pickett’s Charge, the attack was a failure and forced Lee’s retreat • After three long days of fighting, the Union won an important victory Check for Understanding • What made the Union armies at Vicksburg and Gettysburg so successful? • How did those two major battles turn the tide of the Civil War? The Gettysburg Address • On November 19, 1863, there was a ceremony to honor the 50,000 men dead • Lincoln delivered a speech known as the Gettysburg Address • He summarized how the war is a test on how the nation might survive democratically Grant’s Plan for Total War • Destroy the South’s ability to fight • Destroy food, equipment, weapons, and anything else the enemy could use • Gen. Philip Sheridan (USA) took care of total war in the Shenandoah Valley Check for Understanding • How did Grant’s plan for total war and Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address summarize the North’s intentions with ending the war? Sherman’s March to the Sea • Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman (USA) was ordered to capture Atlanta, GA and head to the Atlantic coast • Sherman captures Atlanta, burns the city, and kicks people out of their homes • On his march to the sea, Sherman’s men tore up railroad tracks, killed livestock, burned barns, bridges, homes, and factories (total war) Lincoln is Reelected • Many people were unhappy with the war • Ran against former Gen. George McClellan (Dem) • Dems. wanted an “end of hostilities” w/ the South—restore slavery, restore the Union • Sherman and Sheridan winning in the West rallied the North – Lincoln wins the election; strives for peace It Ends in Virginia • With battles of the Wilderness, Spotsylvania, and Cold Harbor, Grant and Lee engaged in many battles that saw 60,000 men killed • South was running low on supplies • Lee dug in at Petersburg; Grant kept the CSA under siege for nine months • April 2, 1865, both Petersburg and Richmond were taken from the CSA Appomattox Court House • Lee retreated to ACH • Trapped by Union troops, Lee knew his army would be slaughtered • Surrendered on April 9, 1865 • Grant’s terms of surrender were generous and gentlemanly A Turning Point in American History • 360,000 Union and 250,000 CSA soldiers died • Most American deaths in any war • $20 billion is what the war cost • Strength of the central gov’t was growing after the war • Ended slavery in the U.S.