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The Civil War And Reconstruction 3.2a • Summarize the course of the Civil War and its impact on democracy, including the major turning points; the impact of the Emancipation Proclamation; the unequal treatment afforded to AfricanAmerican military units; the geographic, political, and economic factors involved in the defeat of the Confederacy; and the ultimate defeat of the idea of secession. Key Figures of the Civil War • Abraham LincolnPresident of the United States and the first Republican President in history. Ulysses S. Grant • Initially an effective General in the Union’s army in the west he was eventually appointed by Lincoln to command all Union Armies. • He defeated the South and accepted Robert E. Lee’s surrender at Appomattox Courthouse. William Tecumseh Sherman • Union General who commanded Union forces in the west after Grant took command of the Union forces • In 1864 he captured Atlanta in his famous march to the sea. Jefferson Davis • The First and only President of the Confederacy. Robert E. Lee • Took over command of the Confederate Army after General Joseph Johnston was injured. • He won several impressive victories, but was eventually defeated because of the North’s advantage in men and material. • He eventually surrendered to Grant Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson • Confederate General and right hand man to General Lee • Maybe the best General of the war, but he was killed at Chancellorville. Advantages for the North entering the war • More railway lines- which allowed for troops and materials to travel much faster • More factories- for producing guns, ammunition, shoes for soldiers, etc. • Larger Population- the north had over 2/3 of the total population of the United States. It could supply soldiers and produce in factories. • Better political leadership- Lincoln was much better than Davis at getting support for the war. The Northern Government was already established and in place. Southern Advantages • Better Military Commanders- the south was home to military schools and many former Union officers joined the Confederacy, examples, Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson. • War of attrition-the south could fight a war of attrition, it would fight a defensive war and let the north get tired of fighting and quit. They invaded the North twice to hasten the end of the war. (military strategy was to be defensive) • States’ rights- southerners saw themselves as fighting for their homeland ,their right to live, the life they wanted to live. They fought for home. • Geography- initially the South enjoyed an advantage of geography. They were familiar with their home territory and were able early in the war to move men and material from east to west via railroad. (incentive of defending their homeland) The Anaconda Plan • The South depended upon the power of cotton and their trading relationship with Great Britain to provide manufactured goods and ships they needed. • The war would be long so Lincoln had General Winfield Scott draw up a plan to win it. • GOAL- Surround the Confederacy and cut off all supply lines then squeeze the life out of it. • Gain control of the Mississippi River and cut the Confederacy in half. • Blockade the Southern coast and keep ships from trading with the South. • Capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, VA Famous Battles of the Eastern Theater • The Battle of Bull Run/Manassas • The first battle of the war sometimes called the “picnic battle” was to be a sure Union victory, but turned into a Confederate route thanks to Stonewall Jackson. It was a very bloody battle and showed both sides that the war would be long and bloody. Famous Battles of the Eastern Theater • The Battle of Antietam Creek (September 17, 1862) • Robert E. Lee decided to invade the North. • He tried to maintain secrecy, but a copy of Lee’s orders were found in a cigar case at an abandoned camp. (showed where Lee’s army was) • McClellan had a wonderful chance to destroy Lee, but he moved to slow. • In the fighting (the bloodiest day of war in US history) halted the Confederate advance, but did not destroy Lee’s Army. • However, this was an important victory and Lincoln had been waiting for this victory so he could issue the Emancipation Proclamation.