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Transcript
The Civil War And
Reconstruction
3.2a
• Summarize the course of the Civil
War and its impact on democracy,
including the major turning points;
the impact of the Emancipation
Proclamation; the unequal
treatment afforded to AfricanAmerican military units; the
geographic, political, and economic
factors involved in the defeat of the
Confederacy; and the ultimate
defeat of the idea of secession.
Key Figures of the Civil
War
• Abraham
LincolnPresident of the
United States
and the first
Republican
President in
history.
Ulysses S. Grant
• Initially an effective
General in the Union’s
army in the west he
was eventually
appointed by Lincoln to
command all Union
Armies.
• He defeated the South
and accepted Robert E.
Lee’s surrender at
Appomattox
Courthouse.
William Tecumseh
Sherman
• Union General who
commanded Union
forces in the west
after Grant took
command of the
Union forces
• In 1864 he
captured Atlanta in
his famous march
to the sea.
Jefferson Davis
• The First and
only President of
the
Confederacy.
Robert E. Lee
• Took over command of
the Confederate Army
after General Joseph
Johnston was injured.
• He won several
impressive victories,
but was eventually
defeated because of
the North’s advantage
in men and material.
• He eventually
surrendered to Grant
Thomas “Stonewall”
Jackson
• Confederate
General and
right hand man
to General Lee
• Maybe the best
General of the
war, but he was
killed at
Chancellorville.
Advantages for the
North entering the war
• More railway lines- which allowed for
troops and materials to travel much faster
• More factories- for producing guns,
ammunition, shoes for soldiers, etc.
• Larger Population- the north had over 2/3 of
the total population of the United States.
It could supply soldiers and produce in
factories.
• Better political leadership- Lincoln was
much better than Davis at getting support
for the war. The Northern Government
was already established and in place.
Southern Advantages
• Better Military Commanders- the south was
home to military schools and many former Union
officers joined the Confederacy, examples,
Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson.
• War of attrition-the south could fight a war of
attrition, it would fight a defensive war and let
the north get tired of fighting and quit. They
invaded the North twice to hasten the end of the
war. (military strategy was to be defensive)
• States’ rights- southerners saw themselves as
fighting for their homeland ,their right to live, the
life they wanted to live. They fought for home.
• Geography- initially the South enjoyed an
advantage of geography. They were familiar with
their home territory and were able early in the
war to move men and material from east to west
via railroad. (incentive of defending their
homeland)
The Anaconda Plan
• The South depended upon the power of
cotton and their trading relationship with
Great Britain to provide manufactured
goods and ships they needed.
• The war would be long so Lincoln had
General Winfield Scott draw up a plan to
win it.
• GOAL- Surround the Confederacy and cut off all
supply lines then squeeze the life out of it.
• Gain control of the Mississippi River and cut the
Confederacy in half.
• Blockade the Southern coast and keep ships from
trading with the South.
• Capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, VA
Famous Battles of the
Eastern Theater
• The Battle of Bull Run/Manassas
• The first battle of the war sometimes
called the “picnic battle” was to be a
sure Union victory, but turned into a
Confederate route thanks to
Stonewall Jackson. It was a very
bloody battle and showed both sides
that the war would be long and
bloody.
Famous Battles of the
Eastern Theater
• The Battle of Antietam Creek (September
17, 1862)
• Robert E. Lee decided to invade the North.
• He tried to maintain secrecy, but a copy of
Lee’s orders were found in a cigar case at an
abandoned camp. (showed where Lee’s army
was)
• McClellan had a wonderful chance to destroy
Lee, but he moved to slow.
• In the fighting (the bloodiest day of war in US
history) halted the Confederate advance, but
did not destroy Lee’s Army.
• However, this was an important victory and
Lincoln had been waiting for this victory so
he could issue the Emancipation
Proclamation.