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Civil War Weak Southern Govt. A. Founded on states’ rights which limited President Davis’s ability to conduct a war B. They wanted Europeans to recognize the CSA as a country and declare the North’s blockade illegal C. Tried to pressure Great Britain and France to help us by refusing to sell them cotton. D. Trent Affair – 1861 – a. James Mason and John Slidell on the ship Trent going to Europe as ministers to England and France b. Union warship intercepts the Trent and arrests them c. England almost declared war on the US but Lincoln released the 2 men E. Europe ends up not supporting the South. VI Civil War A.1st “modern” war a. New technology – cone-shaped bullets b. New tactics – used trenches and barricades c. Huge armies of mostly civilians who used vast amounts of supplies and equipment d. Extremely high casualties e. Attrition – wearing down of one side by another through exhaustion of soldiers and resources. Meant the armies had to keep replacing their soldiers B. Union comes up with Anaconda Plan – a. Blockade b. Send gunboats to the MS River to split us C.The North (1862) offered a bounty to get people to enlist for 3 years. Offered money as a bonus D.Militia Act – July 1862 – gave Lincoln the power to call state militias into service E. 1863 – Congress passes a national draft VII Naval War A. By 1862 Union has blockaded all southern ports except Charleston SC and Wilmington, NC B. Idea was to cut off trade between the South and the rest of the world. C. The South had 2 ships (built in Gr. Br. ) that attacked the blockade and Northern ships from a port in England D. Union naval commander = David Farragut a. Captured New Orleans b. Gained control of MS River E. 1862 Ulysses S. Grant – tries to take areas around Cumberland and TN Rivers. That would cut TN in half and give the Union a route deep into Confederate territory. VIII Ground War A. Grant’s big victories were at Fort Henry and Donelson. Attacked Shiloh and Union lost 20K troops B. CSA forces attacked Perryville – led by Braxton Bragg C. Buell was ordered by A.L. to attack Chattanooga and cut the rail lines so they could cut off supplies to the Confederacy D. A.L. replaced Buell with Rosecrans E. Rosecrans attacked Bragg near Murfreesboro, TN. F. Bragg retreats to Chattanooga G. General McDowell – lost 1st Battle of Bull Run and he was replaced with Gen George McClellan.- idea is to capture Richmond (capital of the Confederacy) H. So. Commanded by Joseph Johnston and he was able to split the No. troops and prevented them from taking Richmond. I. Robert E. Lee takes over Johnston’s troops and began attacking McClellan in the “Seven Day’s Battle”. – Lee took no mercy and forced the northern troops back to Washington, DC J. As they retreated Lee started after Washington – Second Battle of Bull Run – CSA army got within 20 miles of DC K. Lee invades Maryland – Meets up with McClellan at Antietam Creek – becomes bloodiest one day battle of the war L. CSA lost so many it had to retreat M. Antietam convinced Abe Lincoln to end slavery once and for all. N. Abe issues “Emancipation Proclamation” - says any persons still enslaved on 1-1-1863 would be set free. O. This proclamation changed to tone of the war from being about states’ rights to being about slavery. Because of this the European countries who were considering coming in to the South’s assistance decided they wouldn’t . IX Wartime Economics A. South hurts because supplies are cut off B. Food shortages become a big problem’ C. Killed southern morale and led to riots X Military life A. African Americans officially allowed to enlist after the Emancipation Proclamation B. 54th Massachusetts – 1st Af-Am regiment officially recognized in the North C. Medicine 1. no knowledge of infectious disease/germs 2. infections spread quickly 3. smallpox and pneumonia spread in field hospitals 4. Amputations frequently done to prevent spread of gangrene and other infections 5. Women served as nurses – most famous is probably Clara Barton 6. Elizabeth Blackwell – a.1st female physician in US b. started training program for nurses c. US Sanitary Commission started – provided medical supplies and assistance to many army camps and hospitals d. Civil War became the turning point for the nursing profession D. POWs 1. Early in the war prisoners captured were exchanged 2. After Eman. Proc. The So. Refused to recognize free blacks from the No. and wouldn’t exchange them 3. Lincoln stopped prisoner exchanges after that 4. Andersonville Prison Camp a. in GA b. thousands of No. troops died there from disease, starvation, and exposure c. Henry Wirz was the commander of the camp – he was the only man executed for war during after the war.