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1. Free electrons are created in the Electron
Gun by heating a tungsten filament (Cathode)
2. Electrons are accelerated down the electron
optical column by means of a high voltage
potential at the Anode
Energy Dispersive X-ray
3. The electron flux is shaped into a beam
by the Condenser Lenses
x-rays resolved on the
basis of their energies
4. The beam current is controlled by the Beam
Regulation Aperture (and the condenser lenses)
5. The beam current is measured with, or permitted
down the column by removing, the Faraday Cup
6. Beam ellipticity is corrected by the Stigmator
7. The beam is scanned or fixed into a probe spot
by the Final Condensing (“objective”) Lens
8. The beam impacts the sample, giving rise to various
signals including secondary electrons, backscattered
electrons, x-rays, and cathodoluminescent energy.
Current absorbed by the sample also can be imaged.
Wavelength Dispersive
x-rays resolved by diffraction,
through a regular periodic
solid, to a gas-filled counter
Secondary Electron Detector:
detects low-energy electrons liberated from near the sample
surface, providing an image of sample topography
Backscattered Electron Detector
detects higher-energy electrons “bounced out” of the sample,
providing an image based on average atomic mass (related to
density); hence, the image is based on the compositions of
Absorbed Current:Meter
constituent components
images electrical conductivity
within the sample
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