Diffraction Grating Handbook
... diffraction gratings has greatly improved, and Thermo RGL has been a leader
in this development.
The extremely high precision required of a modern diffraction grating
dictates that the mechanical dimensions of diamond tools, ruling engines, and
optical recording hardware, as well as their environmen ...
... is a fourth-generation fluoroguinolone, which has shown promise with excellent activity against
both Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacteria both in vitro and in vivo. OCMCS is a
biocompatible amphiphilic derivative of chitosan. GFLX could be entrapped into OCMCS by the
interaction between OC ...
Frontiers in Optics 2010/Laser Science XXVI
... Abstract: Fifty years ago, R. Hanbury Brown the enabling technologies is the laser-based
optical trap, or optical tweezers. This lecture
and R. Q. Twiss, invented a new method to
measure the angular diameter of stars, based on will focus on our current work on single
the observation of correlations ...
... school chemistry or CHEM 1090, and; 2) MATH
1200 or MATH 1220 or MATH 1230 or MATH
1260 or MATH 1280 or MATH 1300 or MATH
1310 or MATH 1340 or Math placement score of
41 or higher. Applicable to the BG Perspective
Multiplexed Digital Holography incorporating Speckle
... speckle displacement, we can reconstruct the shape even though the synthetic wavelength is
out of the dynamic range of the object.
In addition to shape measurement, the measurement of deformation fields is one of the
traditional objectives for speckle metrology. There exist two main group of methods ...
Study on Alginate–Chitosan Complex Formed with Different
... such as free water present in the coating. It was observed that samples with the highest amount
of chitosan (ACH-1, ACH-2, and ACH-4) needed a higher temperature to release absorbed water
than samples with a lower concentration of this polysaccharide (p < 0.05). This is a result of stronger
Studies of Nonlinear Femtosecond Pulse Propagation in Bulk
... shorter pulses, however, can lead to nonlinear propagation effects and increased temporal spreading or pulse deformation during transmission. Temporal spreading limits
the density of pulses that can be sent down a transmission line. It also lowers the peak
intensity of the pulses such that, over a l ...
Processing of Graphene combining Optical Detection and Scanning
... silicon/ silicon dioxide substrate with 300 nm oxide layer.
Based on the classification described above, this
graphene flake can be used for calibration measurements
in order to design a suitable image filter for graphene
detection and classification. Therefore, the RGB values
of the preprocessed im ...
Terahertz Waves for Communications and Sensing
... The electromagnetic spectrum is shown in Fig. 1. For
the lower frequencies, including RFs for AM and FM
radio as well as microwaves, the sources are based on
electric generation governed by the classical transport
of electrons. Most dielectric materials are transparent at
these frequencies, allowing ...
Chemical imaging (as quantitative – chemical mapping) is the analytical capability to create a visual image of components distribution from simultaneous measurement of spectra and spatial, time information.The main idea - for chemical imaging, the analyst may choose to take as many data spectrum measured at a particular chemical component in spatial location at time; this is useful for chemical identification and quantification. Alternatively, selecting an image plane at a particular data spectrum (PCA - multivariable data of wavelength, spatial location at time) can map the spatial distribution of sample components, provided that their spectral signatures are different at the selected data spectrum.Software for chemical imaging is most specific and distinguished from chemical methods such as chemometrics. Hyperspectral imaging is most often applied to either solid or gel samples, and has applications in chemistry, biology, medicine, pharmacy (see also for example: food science, biotechnology, agriculture and industry. NIR, IR and Raman chemical imaging is also referred to as hyperspectral, spectroscopic, spectral or multispectral imaging (also see microspectroscopy). However, other ultra-sensitive and selective imaging techniques are also in use that involve either UV-visible or fluorescence microspectroscopy. Many imaging techniques can be used to analyze samples of all sizes, from the single molecule to the cellular level in biology and medicine, and to images of planetary systems in astronomy, but different instrumentation is employed for making observations on such widely different systems.Imaging instrumentation has three components: a radiation source to illuminate the sample, a spectrally selective element, and usually a detector array (the camera) to collect the images. When many stacked spectral channels (wavelengths) are collected for different locations of the microspectrometer focus on a line or planar array in the focal plane, the data is called hyperspectral; fewer wavelength data sets are called multispectral. The data format is called a hypercube. The data set may be visualized as a data cube, a three-dimensional block of data spanning two spatial dimensions (x and y), with a series of wavelengths (lambda) making up the third (spectral) axis. The hypercube can be visually and mathematically treated as a series of spectrally resolved images (each image plane corresponding to the image at one wavelength) or a series of spatially resolved spectra. Many materials, both manufactured and naturally occurring, derive their functionality from the spatial distribution of sample components. For example, extended release pharmaceutical formulations can be achieved by using a coating that acts as a barrier layer. The release of active ingredient is controlled by the presence of this barrier, and imperfections in the coating, such as discontinuities, may result in altered performance. In the semi-conductor industry, irregularities or contaminants in silicon wafers or printed micro-circuits can lead to failure of these components. The functionality of biological systems is also dependent upon chemical gradients – a single cell, tissue, and even whole organs function because of the very specific arrangement of components. It has been shown that even small changes in chemical composition and distribution may be an early indicator of disease. Any material that depends on chemical gradients for functionality may be amenable to study by an analytical technique that couples spatial and chemical characterization. To efficiently and effectively design and manufacture such materials, the ‘what’ and the ‘where’ must both be measured. The demand for this type of analysis is increasing as manufactured materials become more complex. Chemical imaging techniques is critical to understanding modern manufactured products and in some cases is a non-destructive technique so that samples are preserved for further testing.