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WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW Electron Configurations Explain the relationship between energy levels and sublevels and atomic orbitals. Describe the shapes of the s & p orbitals. Recall the reason for the x, y, z, axes. Apply the Pauli exclusion principle, the aufbau principle, and Hund’s rule to write electron configurations using orbital diagrams and electron configuration notation (complete and noble gas). Define valence electrons and apply this knowledge to determine the number of valence electrons in an atom and in an ion. Draw electron-dot structures (Lewis-dot) representing an atom’s valence electrons and demonstrate a basic understanding of covalent and ionic bonds. Explain why elements in the same group have similar properties. Identify the four blocks of the periodic table based on their electron configuration.