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CHEMISTRY TERMS Period: Elements in the same horizontal row with the same ground state energy level. Periodic Law: Elements list in order of their atomic numbers that fall into reoccurring groups. Ionic Radius: the radius of an atom’s ion, measured by the distance between ions in a crystal lattice. Atomic Radius: one-half the distance between the nuclei of two like atoms in a diatomic molecule, or the size of an atom. Ionization Energy: The energy needed to remove an outermost electron Electronegativity: When elements are chemically combined, the tendency to attract electrons. Shielding: the attraction between an electron and the nucleus in any atom with more than one electron shell. Nuclear Charge: The net positive charge experienced by an electron in an atom with more than one electron. Sometimes effective is used to describe this because the shielding effect on negatively charged electrons prevents higher orbital electrons from full nuclear charge of the nucleus due to repelling effect of the inner layer electrons.