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Transcript
If light can have a dual nature
why not matter???
Electrons don’t move at the speed of light (although
in certain cases they can be close), so rearrange
the equation for the mass of the photon to solve for
the momentum of the electrons using “v” as the
velocity of the electron
mv = h/l
l = h/mv
DeBroglie Eq.
What would the wavelength of a
baseball be (142 grams) thrown at a
speed of 100 miles per hour (44.4 m/s)
1.1 x 10-34 m
What would the wavelength of an
electron be (9.11 x 10-28 grams)
whizzing about it’s orbit in the Bohr
model traveling at a speed of 2.0 million
meters per second? 3.6 x 10-10 m
Doesn’t Fit
Fits
Fits
Schrödinger: The Wave Equation
One Look →
psi, the wave function↓(locations)
(many
solutions)
ĤY = EY
↑energy of electron
mathematical operator ↑
Heisenberg: The Uncertainty Principle
(The observer affects the observed)
Future location of electron
Depends on
Dx • Dmv ≥ h/4p
position
velocity
can’t
know
both
well
Born: Electrons are probability waves
(“Waves of Chance”)
2
Y → describes the probability of
finding the electrons in the
locations described by Y
High probability region in space
where the electron is likely to be
found…. orbitals (pictured as
boundary surface
diagrams)
Parameters… to decribe electron electron energy
Quantum Numbers:
n = principle quantum number
(1, 2, 3…∞)
l = secondary quantum number
(0, 1, 2, 3…n-1)
ml= magnetic quantum number
(-l…0…+l)