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Hacker Ethics Kim Bissett Sabrina Short Hacker Ethic: In General Freedom of Information The web is not physical; it couldn’t be interpreted as property, so it can be accessed by the public Security/Privacy Hackers do not want a real-life Big Brother society (from Orwell’s 1984). During the 80s, they discovered a major flaw in a credit firm, where the general public did not know that the firm was collecting their information Hackers do have ethics! Hackers maintain a trust system; the subculture operates in a tight network Hackers are not entirely good, nor are they just as bad. Intentions are based on utilitarianism (Mills) Boundaries in the Hacker Ethic They can target government and corporate systems, but not those of an individual or a nonprofit organization. The cause of the organization is key. The hackers should share information with others within the group. They cannot brag, expose their knowledge to the outside world, spy on users, or trash systems. Kevin Mitnick Hacked into the NORAD system in the 1980s Convicted and sent into prison on two occasions (1988 and 1995) On the second time, Mitnick broke into an email system (not known if he was spying on it, which would violate the hacker ethics.) If he was caught the first time, Mitnick should have kept a lower profile. Hackers get exposed to the mainstream, mostly by the government, when they disregard the secrecy set forth by the hacker ethic. Cyberactivism and Hacktivism Cyberactivism is a form of protest that alerts society of social problems, such as poverty, through listservs, virtual sit-ins, and creating websites to attract the attention of the public. The computer is proving to be a new medium for the 21st century. Cyberactivism and Hacktivism 2 Hacktivism is the intentional vandalism of websites that do not support or alert the attention of social problems. Such political clash can cause jeopardy in national identity. This is an extreme form of cyberactivism, therefore it is not practiced as much. New protest techniques used in the WTO Protests,Battle in Seattle, in 1999. Kant’s Philosophy German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) – determined by the action rather than the intent or outcome. – moral ideal that action out weighs consequence. – All actions should be guided by moral laws, and these laws are universal. Duty is what counts! what we want is of no importance; duty is what counts. – Hacking into systems to gain knowledge of the software or to point out flaws is wrong, even if no damage is done to the system. Breaking and Entering- if you break into someone’s house, but don’t take anything or break anything you are still committing a crime. – Taking away a person’s sense of security. information IS property According to United Kingdom, with the Criminal Damage Act of 1971. – Offender in the UK was convicted of property damage even though the property was not tangible and the damage could only be determined by the machine. The Computer Misuse Act of 1990 – “unauthorized access” – “data modification” – makes crimes easier to prosecute. Public Information Some information on the internet is made accessible to the public. – but should not be destroyed or edited without authorization. Other information that is not purposefully made accessible – Account numbers and personal information should not be sought after regardless of one’s intentions. International Legislation International groups like the United Nations and the Council of Europe are writing legislation that applies internationally. Three types of Cybercrime as using a computer as a: – – – target- spreading viruses tool- using a computer to commit traditional crimes such as credit card fraud accessory- to store illegal or stolen information. Freedom of Speech Hacktivism violates people’s first amendment rights of Freedom of Speech. – instead create you own website or blog rather than editing the site of a political group. According to Kant: no ones rights should be taken at the expense of another’s because all of mankind is equal. Hidden Subculture Hackers design this subculture and trust system so they don’t get caught. – keep a low profile – don’t brag about what you are doing to people outside of the network – don’t narc on a fellow hacker if you are caught Why? – hackers know what they are doing is wrong and they develop a system of “cultural norms” to avoid prosecution. what do YOU think? Hacking into government systems to point out security flaws without harm to the system? Ethical? Not Ethical? Hacking into a home computer to point out security flaws? Ethical? Not Ethical? what do YOU think? A graduate student specializing in computer security creates a website similar to Northwest Airlines to demonstrate that terrorists can make fake boarding passes. Ethical? Not ethical? what do YOU think? A data collecting company claims to keep certain information private, such as SSN and account numbers. A hacker discovers that the company did not keep its promise. The private information is actually published on the report. The hacker makes his findings public in a news outlet. Ethical? Not ethical? what do YOU think? Hacking into the website of a political candidate and editing information because you disagree with his position? Ethical? Not Ethical?