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1. “deon”: duty + “logos”: study, theory,
account, principle
1. Utility principle: Through our actions we
should strive to maximize
pleasure/happiness and minimize
pain/suffering for the most people (greatest
happiness for the greatest number of people)
1. All our actions/choices are originally
determined/motivated by self-interest
2. Non-consequentialism: Duties must be
followed ‘regardless of the consequences
of the action’
3. Good Will: Looks at the intentions or
motives behind the action rather than the
outcomes (good-in-itself)
4. A choice is right if it conforms the moral
norms that derive not from religion but from
human reason/rational/reasoning capacity
(which distinguishes human beings from
other animals) > Think whether the action is
good or right before acting
5. Categorical Imperative: Act only
according to that maxim whereby you can, at
the same time, will that it should become a
universal law
6. Value-in-itself: Human life/reason must
be valued not as a tool but in and for itself
2. Consequentialist theory focusing on the
ends/outcomes of an action rather than the
means or intentions behind the action >
ethical decisions must be based on
calculating the good in terms of the
consequences of the action
3. The purpose of ethics is to make world a
better place> The right action is the one that
produces the most intrinsic good
4. Calculatesthe overall good and bad
consequences the action or decision
generates (looking at the number of people
affected and the gravity of the pain suffered
by the action)
5. Harm principle (Mill): I am free to do and
say whatever I like as long as it does not
harm other people in society
2. Being ethical is to put your own
good/interest/benefit/concern above that of
everyone else > If the action produces the
best outcome for you (the
agent/individual) then it is the
right/good/ethical action
3. Consequentialist theory: While judging
whether the action is/was good or bad,
ethical egoism looks at the consequences
enjoyed/suffered by the individual doing the
4. Encourages greed as well as competition
between people/companies/ political
parties/institutions etc.
5. May lead to good or bad results (e.g. the
successes and failures of the capitalist
6. May lead to the increase in the quality of
service as well as corruption/lack of social