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What shapes an ecosystem?
4-1, 4-2 A
Greenhouse effect
• CO2, methane,
water vapor
trap heat
• Maintains
Earth’s temp
• Solar E is
trapped, heat E
doesn’t escape
into space
• Cause: Angle of sun’s heating and tilt of the earth
• Effect: Earth has 3 major climate zones
Habitat = address
• Biotic factors:
All other living things in
the community
• Abiotic factors:
climate, temp, rainfall,
nutrients, sunlight
• Both determine
survival and growth of
Niche = job
• What it eats
• Place in the food
• Physical conditions
it needs to survive
• How it reproduces
• No two species can
share the same niche
in the same habitat.
• Ex: 3 types of warbler
share the same tree,
but feed at different
places to decrease
their competition
Figure 4-5 Three Species of Warblers and
Their Niches
Section 4-2
Cape May Warbler
Feeds at the tips of branches
near the top of the tree
Bay-Breasted Warbler
Feeds in the middle
part of the tree
Spruce tree
Yellow-Rumped Warbler
Feeds in the lower part of the tree and
at the bases of the middle branches
• A series of predictable
changes to an
ecosystem, in
response to natural or
human disturbances
• Primary: begins
where no soil exists
• Secondary: change
after a disturbance
like fire or farming
Succession at Mt. St. Helens following a volcanic eruption
Succession: from pioneer species
to climax forest
Lichens, moss create soil for succeeding plant species
Marine succession
• A whale dies and
sinks to the ocean
• Fishes will eat the
• Amphipods, worms,
bacteria complete the
process of releasing
nutrients back into the