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Section 3-1 and Section 3-2 Book
Work Review – Finding the Good
Pen/pencil, highlighter
Section 3-1 What is Ecology?
1. What is ecology?
ANSWER: The scientific study of interactions
among organisms and between organisms and
their environment, or surroundings.
Leading into abiotic interactions and biotic
interactions. Pole to Pole connections!
2. What does the biosphere contain?
Definition for Species
ANSWER: Group of organisms so similar to one
another that they can breed and produce fertile
A group of individuals that belong to the
same species and live in the same area…
Define Community
ANSWER: Assemblages of different
populations that live together in a defined
Define ecosystem.
ANSWER: A collection of all the organisms
that live in a particular place, together with
their nonliving, or physical, environment.
A group of ecosystems that have the same
climate and dominant communities…
8. Why are many ecological phenomena
difficult to study?
ANSWER: Ecological phenomena occur over
long periods of time or on such large spatial
scales that they are difficult to study.
9. Why do ecologists make models?
ANSWER: To gain insight into complex
phenomena such as the effects of global
warming on ecosystems.
Do all scientists make models?
Whiteboard time!
Q1. List the six different levels of
organization that ecologists
study in order from smallest to
Hold it up for Mrs. G to see.
Whiteboard time!
Q2. What is an ecosystem?
Show Mrs. G.
Whiteboard time!
Q3. How would you know
whether 2 individuals are of the
same species or not? (If they
look similar.)
Share with Mrs. G.
Whiteboard time!
Q4. Give at least one reason we
(as students) would use
modeling as a method of
Show Mrs. G.
Whiteboard time!
Q5. Beside each level of
ecological organization, give
examples in our Pacific
Northwest. List: Individual,
Population, Community,
Ecosystem, Biome (which is
Section 3-2 Energy Flow
1. What is at the core of every organism’s
interaction with the environment?
ANSWER: Its need for energy to power life’s
3. What are autotrophs?
ANSWER: Use energy from the
environment to fuel the assembly of simple
inorganic compounds into complex organic
4. Why are autotrophs also called producers?
ANSWER: They make their own food.
Where do they get the energy?
ANSWER: Photosynthesis.
List 3 things needed for photosynthesis to occur.
ANSWER: Sunlight, water, carbon dioxide
7. What is chemosynthesis?
ANSWER: When organisms use chemical
energy to produce carbohydrates.
9. Heterotrophs are also called…
ANSWER: Consumers.
10. Plant and animal remains and other
dead matter are collectively called…
ANSWER: Detritus
Types of Heterotrophs
Define Omnivore.
ANSWER: Eat both plants and animals.
Types of Heterotrophs
Define Detritivore.
ANSWER: Feed on plant and animal
remains and other dead matter.
List organisms that are detritivores.
ANSWER: Mites, earthworms, snails, crabs
Types of Heterotrophs
Define Decomposer.
ANSWER: Break down organic matter.
List a couple decomposers. (Not Bach.)
ANSWER: Bacteria, fungi
*** Bacteria – VERY important for nitrogen
12. How does energy flow through an
ANSWER: In ONE DIRECTION, from the sun
or inorganic compounds to autotrophs
(producers) and then to various
heterotrophs (consumers).
Feeding Relationships
Food chain
Feeding Relationships
Food web
15. What is a trophic level?
ANSWER: Each step of a food chain or food
16. In a food web, what organisms make up
the first trophic level?
ANSWER: Producers
18. What is an ecological pyramid?
ANSWER: A diagram that shows the relative
amounts of energy or matter contained
within each trophic level in a food chain or
food web.
Each time you rise a level on an energy
pyramid, what number do you divide the
energy by?
21. What is biomass?
ANSWER: Total amount of living tissue
within a given trophic level. Grams of
organic matter per unit area.
(grams/meters squared)
23. What does a pyramid of numbers
ANSWER: # of individual organisms at each
trophic level.
24. Why can each trophic level support only
one tenth the amount of living tissue of the
level below it?
ANSWER: Because each trophic level
harvests only about one tenth of the
energy from the level below, it can support
only about one tenth the amount of living