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Levels of Organization
Essent. ?: How do organisms depend on each
other for their survival?
Objectives: ID the levels of organization in an
ID source of E for life processes
Trace the flow of E through the ecosystem
Understanding Relationships =
Inderdependence in Biosphere
Species: groups of organisms that are so
similar they are able to breed and produce
fertile offspring
Populations – Groups of same species that live
in same area
Communities – different populations living in
the same area
Ecosystem = a collection of all organisms living
in an area and the nonliving, physical
Biome = a group of ecosystems with the same
climate and similar dominant communities
Central part of an organisms interaction with
environment = the need for ENERGY for life
Sunlight = Main SOURCE of E
Some organisms rely on E stored in
inorganic compounds – ammonia, hydrogen
AUTOTROPHS: only organism that captures E
from sunlight OR chemicals to PRODUCE their
own food  PRODUCERS: take simple
inorganic compounds(carbon dioxide, water)
and chemically turn them into complex organic
compounds(glucose) living tissue
AUTOTROPHS – most common are
photosynthetic - (show reaction)
Land – plants
Water – algae(phytoplankton) and large
Wet areas(marshes, tidal flats) – bacteria
NO LIGHT – autotrophs = chemosynthesis –
Bacteria found in volcanic ocean vents, hot
springs, tidal marshes
CONSUMERS – organisms dependent on other
organisms for E = HETEROTROPHS ex=
herbivores, carnivores, omnivores detritivores,
decomposers(bacteria and fungi)
Detritivores and decomposers provide for
nutrient cycling
E flows in one direction
Sun or inorganic compound
Reltaionships of who eats whom = FOOD CHAIN
Example = Marine Food chain
Algae(phytoplankton) – zooplankton small
fish squidshark
Food web – links ALL food chains
Greater diversity of organisms in food web,
more stable, healthy ecosystem
TROPHIC LEVEL – each step in food chain =
trophic level
Producers = 1st Trophic level
Consumers = 2nd, 3rd, 4th trophic levels
Smaller populations at higher trophic levels
Small group activity – make food web of a
biome, include 5 food chains, label producer,
primary consumer, secondary consumer, label
herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, decomposer
Include predator, prey relationship
Label 5 abiotic factors(label)