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 Patterns of pitches that move up or down by steps or
skips, or repeat themselves
 cadence-Harmonic formula that brings a musical idea to a
direction- whether a (melody) moves higher or lower, or
stays the same
phrase- A short portion of a melodic line with a clear
beginning and end.
pitch notation- symbols used to tell a performer what
pitch to play
shape- the shape created as a (melody) moves higher and
lower, or stays on the same pitch
Patterns of long and short sounds (and silences) with an
underlying steady pulse (beat).
 duration- the length of time a sound or silence lasts
 fermata- holding a note for a longer than normal time
 meter- another name for time signature
 duple meter- beats organized in twos
 triple meter- beats organized in threes
 asymmetrical meter- Grouping of beats (e.g. 5/4, 7/4)
that give the feeling of being off balance, not
 syncopation- A temporary shifting of the accent in music
so that the stress falls between the strong beats
Two or more pitches sounding at the same time
 harmonic progression- the movement of a chordal (vertical)
set of notes in a musical composition
intervals- the distance between two notes
major- a pattern of notes arranged in a special order;
wwhwwh (w=whole, h=half)
parts- separate lines in music
resting “home” tone- a dominant tone that has other tones
related to it
tonality- the relation of tones and chords to a “home” tone
triads- major /minor- Three tone chords( e.g. 1st, 3rd, 5th
notes of a major or minor scale)
unison- to sing and/or play the same part
The speed of the steady beat
 Largo (large) - Very slow
 Adagio - Slow
 Andante - "Walking tempo"
 Moderato (Moderate) - Medium
 Allegro - Cheerful (faster)
 Presto - Very Fast
 p (piano) = soft
mp (mezzo piano) = medium soft
 f (forte) = loud
mf (mezzo forte) = medium loud
 The symbol "m" is never used by itself in dynamics.
 p<f
(gets gradually louder)
 f > mp
(gets gradually softer)
The structure of a piece of music - the way the parts are organized
(put together)
 AB
2 parts; very different from each other
3 parts; 1st and last are the same
 Verse - Chorus (refrain)
Usually has words, but doesn't have to
 Theme - Variations
 Call - Response
Came from Africa; leader/ group; common in gospel style
 Rondo (ABACABA)
AB- music composed with two different sections
ABA- music composed in 3 sections; A’s are alike and B is different
al fine- To the finish
call & response- a soloist makes a statement and a group gives a reply
coda- A few measures or a section added to the end of a piece of music to make a more
effective finish
coda sign- A sign that denotes the Coda.
da capo (D.C)- From the beginning
dal segno (D.S.)- Repeat from the sign
repeat signs- a symbol that tells a musician to go back and play something again
rondo- An instrumental piece in which the leading theme is repeated, alternately with others.
round- form where performers play or sing the same melody by entering at different times
theme and variation- Form consisting of a theme followed by a number of variations on the
verse/chorus- verse: a set of words set to music as in a hymn; chorus: a set of words set to
music that is often repeated after each verse
(tone color) - The unique sound of each voice or instrument.
 For your piece the keyboard can play -
harpsichord (Baroque/Classical),
Electric piano (60's & 70's),
organ (especially good for classical style music)
Don't use a fast tempo with strings or organ
The unique qualities that characterize and identify the
variety of types of music
For your piece classical or folk might be best.
 Folk
The first and oldest music
 Roots: People (folks) of every age and culture
 Pioneers/ Big Names: Woody Guthrie (wrote "this Land is Your
 Vocal Characteristics: whatever is natural for the person
 Instruments: Acoustic (guitar, banjo, harmonica, etc.)
 Other characteristics: "natural"; nonsense words; passed on to
each generation
 Classical
 Roots: Medieval Times
 Big Names:John Williams (living composer - Jurassic Park; Star
Wars; Harry Potter; Indiana Jones); Bach, Beethoven, Brahams,
Mozart, Vivaldi, Handel, Hayden, Tchaikowsky (all dead)
 Vocal Characteristics: Highly trained voices
 Instruments: all traditional orchestral and concert band
 Other characteristics: Symphonies, operas, ballets, bands, choirs,
concerto, sonata, chamber music
 Gospel
 Roots: Late 1800's; came from slave traditions
 Pioneers/ Big Names: Mahalia Jackson (American; made gospel
style popular)
 Vocal Characteristics: echo singing; call and response
 Instruments: Tamborine, organ
 Other characteristics: Swaying, hand clapping (grew out of slave
 Bluegrass
 Roots: 20th century, grew out of folk and gospel
 Pioneers/ Big Names: Bill Monroe (Kentuckian, from Ohio County
next door!)
 Vocal Characteristics: "Nasal"
 Instruments: fiddle, banjo, mandolin, string bass
 Other characteristics: often Christian lyrics but not always
 Country
 Roots: 20th century (evolved from folk)
 Pioneers/ Big Names: Dolly Parton, Johnny Cash
 Vocal Characteristics: "country" twang
 Instruments: acoustic guitar, dobro, fiddle
 Other characteristics: lyrics often deal with life's problems
 Jazz - syncopation - rhythm, wind instruments - timbre, "scat" singing
- vocal, bending or scooping pitches, improvisation
 Roots: Early 20th century
 Big Names:Scott Joplin, Louis Armstrong, Ella Fitzgerald
Ragtime was the 1st type of Jazz
 Vocal Characteristics: Bending and scooping pitches
 Instruments: mostly winds (especially trumpet and saxophone)
 Other characteristics: Syncopation
 Types of Jazz: Ragtime, Dixieland, Swing/ Big Bands, hot, cool, blues,
 Rock
 Roots: mid 20th century
 Big Names: Elvis Presley, Rolling Stones, Metallica
 Vocal Characteristics: "scream" singing
 Instruments: Electronic
 Other characteristics: hard-driving rhythms
 Types: soft, hard, punk, funk, heavy metal, rap, techno
Patriotic (May be presented on CATS test as a style)
Broadway Musical (May be presented on CATS test as a style)
 Cultures- the total product of human creativity
 American Folk- music of the common people
 Asian- the people of China, India and Japan
 European- the people of the European continent whose
music had it’s own roots in ancient Greece and Italy and
represent ”western culture”
 Native American- the people who first lived in what is now
the Americas
 West African- ethnic peoples from the western countries of
music performed for rituals/ celebrations
for entertainment - sports, games, parties
intended to express the emotions, thoughts, or experiences of
the composer
 Sacred: about faith or religion or the Bible
 Secular: anything not based on religion
 The more primitive the culture the more the music was tied to ritual.
 Historic Uses of music
 Signaling, curing disease, making work more tolerable, religious and magical rituals
 Evolution of Music
 Egytian music influenced Greek music, Greeks influenced Romans; Greek and Roman
influenced all others
 No written music survives before the middle ages, but writings ABOUT music do
 Greek tetrachords survived and probably led to scales
 Early greeks looked at music in two ways
 Mathematical (Pythagoras) - analyze mathematical concepts in music
 Philosophic (Plato, Aristotle) - feelings, etc.
 vocal vowel sounds- no words, few pitches, mostly steps, probably
evolved into the pentatonic scale (5 tones; common in Asia)
 Instrumental music probably evolved from natural things like striking
rocks or sticks together.
 First harmony was probably a drone (one continous pitch) done WITH
the melody.
 Melody: Pentatonic Scale, variation and decorations
 Rythm:long and short, NOT strong and weak
 Harmony: drones or obstinate patterns
 Instruments: string and percussion, a few wood winds used to
accompany voice, string instruments plucked or with bow
 Percussion: wood, metal, stone, gourds
repetition and free variation
 mostly vocal, mostly melodic and mostly improvised
some schools started
Three classes of people at the time:
 Clergy (churchman)
 Landowners (made so by the church)
 peasants
Peasants did all the work, lived short and simple but hard lives.
Huts had dirt floors.
No choice of "career"
Much superstition and little education.
No money - exchange only
 Periods within the Middle Ages:
 Early middle ages: Romanesque architecture
 Later middle ages: Gothic architecture
 Muhammad - calle dthe "prophet"; started the Muslim religion
called Islam
 Marco Polo - explorer
 Hildegard (amazing female) - Num; could read and write, wrote
music, knew about science of plants and their cures, lived into her
80's (most poeple died in 30's or 40's)
Father Guido: devised the STAFF and the beginning SCALES
 Real music notation
 Later middle ages: polyphony (many lines)
 First known ballads (story songs)
Music served church and
established a type of music
other than Folk for the first
time ever, thus, "classical"
music has much sacred music
 String: Lute, Viol and Harp
 Woodwinds: used mostly for outdoor music
 brass instrument use increased (sackbut - early
trombone), primitive keyboard instruments (hurdygurdy)
 composers became known for their music (1st time in history)
 Important composers
 deMachaut
 Leonin
 Perotin
 Landini
 Forms developed
 Madrigal
 ballad
 caccia (music for a hunt)
 Style: plain song, or chant, monophonic (one line)
 Chants first collected and written during the leadership of Pope Gregory -
thus this type of chant is known as the Gregorian Chant
 Some things that were "reborn" during this time:
a revival of the classical forms originally developed by the ancient Greeks and Romans
an intensified concern with secular life
interest in humanism
assertion of the importance of the individual.
Knowledge And Learning
Fine Arts (music, literature, drama, dance, and visual art)
ballet and opera created
Protestant reformation
Printing press invented
Cities began in Europe
 Economy
no money system - still barter and exchange
Life improved for most people
 Shakespeare (literature)
 Michelangelo (visual art)
 Leonardo da Vinci (science, philosophy and visual art)
 Columbus (exploration)
 Martin Luther (religious reform)
 Troubadours (traveling musicians and entertainers)
Still male voices only
String Instruments: dulcimer, clavichord
 Byrd
 Palestrina
 Gabrieli
 Monteverdi
Monteverdi was active in reorganizing and improving the cappella as well as
writing music for it,
Monteverdi can be justly considered one of the most powerful figures in the
history of music
two upper voices had different words
music for the traditional Catholic worship service
polyphonic and unaccompanied by instruments, with the number of voices varying from two to eight,
but most frequently three to six
Chanson (French for song)
secular piece with moralistic or sacred words
virtuoso piece of music typically for a keyboard or plucked string instrument featuring sections of
virtuosic passagework,
with or without imitative or fugal interludes,
generally emphasizing the dexterity of the performer
a formal technique where material is altered during repetition: reiteration with changes.
The changes may involve harmony, melody, counterpoint, rhythm, timbre or orchestration
Types of Renaissance Dances:
 Simple dances that were performed by an unlimited number of people- usually performed
in cirles or lines.
 More complex dances that required a dancing master and practice- usually performed for
an audience.
 Music more complex (polyphony)
 Excessive decoration
 Money system started
 America begins
 Cities grow
 People have more choices
 Public schools becomming common
 Harpsichord (plucked mechanism)
 Johann Sebastian Bach (vocal, keyboard)
 George Frederic Handel ("Messiah")
 Antonio Vivaldi ("The 4 Seasons")
 Opera
an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work
which combines a text (called a libretto) and a musical score.
 Oratorio
a large musical composition including an orchestra, a choir, and
soloists with a sacred text
 Cantata
a vocal composition with an instrumental accompaniment and often
containing more than one movement. - sort of a "mini opera"
 Overture
the instrumental introduction to a dramatic, choral or, occasionally,
instrumental composition.
 Became more complex; much improvisation in music
 America becomes a nation (1776)
Our music not much like that in Europe at the time - ours was
mostly Folk based on what was brought here from European
 Characteristics
 Return to "classical" ideas (Greek; Roman)
 Clean balanced; order, many rules
 Important inventions
 Piano (not widely used yet)
 Cotton gin
 steam railway locomotive
 Napolean
French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the history
of Europe.
 George Washington
 Thomas Jefferson
 Benjamin Franklin
 Franz Joseph Haydn
"Papa", father of the symphony, wrote 104 (more than anyone else)
and string quartet (84!)
 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
child prodigy; "A Little Night Music"; many operas and all forms of the
 Ludwig van Beethoven
crossed over from Classical and Romantic
went deaf
wrote 9 symphonies
a work for keyboard alone, or for keyboard and one other instrument, often the violin or cello
Vocal music was dominant, and symphonies provided preludes, interludes, and postludes. At the time most
symphonies were relatively short, lasting between 10 and 20 minutes
solo concerto
only one soloist, accompanied by an orchestra
three movements, which were traditionally fast (vigorous and showed contrast between groups of
instruments), slow (lyrical and intimate in a new key) then fast (lively and dancelike).
3 part variations
a social dance of French origin for two persons, usually in 3/4 time. Written for instruments to play
the instrumental introduction to a dramatic, choral or, occasionally, instrumental composition.
an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work which combines a text (called a
libretto) and a musical score.
a large musical composition including an orchestra, a choir, and soloists based on sacred text
 Folk music is introduced into "classical- style" music
 simple harmony
"singable" melodies that didn't have many large leaps; predictable
rhythms kept simple; strict tempos that didn't change within a
movement; dynamics were "terraced" from "p" to "f" - no crescendo
ad decrescendo no gradual changes; Strict use of forms of the time
 Instrumental music was the most important
 First time for 4 distinct groups in orchestras
string, woodwind, brass, percussion
 opera grows more popular
 Dynamics become standard
 almost no improvisation
 Expression of feeling
"Passion" (not romance but STRONG feelings) Strong feelings = strong
actions, thus, much change - wars, revolutions and much creativity also
 Fantasy; emotion; Drama
 Industrial revolution
major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation had a
profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions in Britain.
The changes subsequently spread throughout Europe, North America,
and eventually the world
 American Civil War and civil wars in other countries
 Artists used more beautiful vibrant colors
 First modern Olympics
 Victor Hugo
wrote "The Hunchback of Notre Dame"
 Alexander Graham Bell
invented telephone
 Orchestra gets larger
 Instruments are improved and made capable of more sound
 Saxophone invented
Piano most popular during this time
 American
 Stephen Foster
wrote songs that were so popular they are now part of U.S. Folk music
 Scott Joplin
First black American to "make it big" as a composer
created a new style called Ragtime which evolved into jazz
 John Phillip Sousa
"The March King" made marching bands popular
wrote 120 marches
rebuilt the tuba to be more usable; named the sousaphone in his
 Other
 Beethoven - German
first composer to be independent of patrons
Brahms - German
best known work is simple "Lullaby"
Tchaikovsky - Russian
"1812 overture", ballets - most famous "The Nutcracker"
Verdi - Italian
famous for Opera
Wagner - German
famous for Opera - many of which were based on mythology
Strauss - German
"The Waltz King"
Claude Debussy - French
one of the major impressionistic composers
composed piano music, opera, cantatas, ballets, and orchestral and chamber works.
Maurice Ravel - French
also Impressionistic
known especially for the subtlety, richness and poignancy of his melodies, orchestral
and instrumental textures and effects
 Symphonic poem
a piece of orchestral music in one movement in which some extramusical
program provides a narrative or illustrative element.
 Program music
Tells a "story" without words. Instruments only.
a form of art music intended to evoke extra-musical ideas, images in the mind
of the listener by musically representing a scene, image or mood
 Impressionism
close of Romantic period, beginning of Modern
"hazy, dream-like" dreamy melodies, delicate sounds
 rapid change
 huge increase in technology
 Ambivalent attitudes toward the musical past
A widening gap between "art" and "popular" music
The advent of sound recording
The birth of a "World Music" culture
 Dissonance
 savage rhythms
 clashing chords
 It wasn't until the 1800's that Americans began to catch
up with European music. Now we are world leaders.
Other cultures copy our jazz, rock, rap and other styles
 Irving Berlin - American
"White Christmas" and "God Bless America"
George Gershwin - American
"Porgy and Bess", "An American in Paris", "Rhapsody in Blue"
Rogers and Hammerstein - American
Broadway musicals - "The King and I", "The Sound of Music", "Oklahoma"
Aaron Copland - American
used much American folk music in classical composition - "Billy the Kid",
Stravinsky Russian
Russian ballets
Prokofiev - Russian
Russian - "Peter and the Wolf"
No new forms
many new styles
All sounds are possible (even no sounds).
New instruments and the sounds of popular music have changed the
soundscape of the twentieth century.
Rhythmic language can be enormously complex.
Melodies can be long and abstract or reduced to small gestures.
Any harmonic combination is possible. Composers have made use of extreme
dissonance as well as microtonal intervals.
Form can be controlled to an almost infinite degree, or it may be the result of
improvisation and chance.
American music is heavily influenced by African cultures
Poly rhythms
Spirituals (from slavery)
Call and Response
 Grand Staff
 Treble Clef
 Bass Cleff
A dot beside a note adds half of what the note is worth by itself
 Whole Note
 Half Note
 Quarter Note
It always takes two quarter notes to equal a half, no matter what
the time signature.
 Eighth Note
Don't use on eighth not or sixteenth note and put a half note
right after it.
 Sixteenth Note
Sixteenth notes are usually grouped in groups of 4's because it
takes 4 of them to equal one quarter note.
Worth the same count as the note with the same name.
 Whole Rest
 Half Rest
 Quarter Rest
 Eighth Rest
 Sixteenth Rest
 Top number is how many counts to a measure
 Bottom number is which note gets one count
 Sharp
 Flat
 Natural
 Bracket
Joins multiple lines of staves
 Brace
Joins multiple lines of staves
 Music Start
 Music Stop
 Open Repeat
 Close Repeat
 Copied Topics
 Larger Size = Lower Pitch
 Assigned to family by how it produces sound
 Each instrument has its own unique sound (timbre)
 Something must vibrate for sound to occur
 Most instruments have something that amplifies the
 Material and shape help sound to resonate
 All Instruments can fit in one or both catagories
 Wind
 Woodwind
 Brass
 Percussion
 Strings
 Percussion
 Cylindrical shape
 Cylindrical mouthpiece
 Bell amplifies sound
 Holes to open/ close for pitch change
 Made of wood, resins, or metals
 Used in bands
 Orchestras require wind
 Piccolo
 Flute
 Oboe
 Clarinet
 Saxophones
 bassoon
 Reed
 Flute - airstream
 Bell
 Make tube longer or shorter by covering/ uncovering the
 Requires wind (air)
 Cup shaped mouthpiece
 Open/close valves (holes) to change pitches
 Made of brass
 Bell amplifies sound
 Used in bands and orchestras
 Cylindrical and conical shapes
 Trumpet
 French horn
 Trombone
 Tuba
 Lips of the player
 Bell
 Make tube longer/ shorter by pushing buttons that open
or close valves (trombone slide)
 Change the lips
 Box shaped – all similar
 Wood bodies
 No wind needed
 No mouth piece
 Used in orchestras
 Violin
 Viola
 Cello
 Double bass
 Strings
 Sound box
 Move fingers on string to make it longer or shorter
 Various materials
 some change pitches – most don’t
 Used in bands and orchestras
 Drums
 Xylophone
 Bells
 Cymbals
 Sound box
 Chamber
 Some have sound boxes to amplify the sound
 Piano
 Xylophone
 tympani
Snare drum
Bass drum
 From one key to the very next (no matter the color) is a
half step
“D” is the “dog” in the twin black “doghouse”
Sharp # is a ½ step right
Flat ♭is a ½ step left
A chord is every other key (at least 3)
Enharmonic Tones: 1 pitch, 2 names
 Opera: musical form performed on a stage with a live orchestra,
costumes and sets (often dance) in which all dialogue is sung
Composer: creates new music
Conductor: leads others in a performance
Libretto: the script for an opera
Aria: an operetic solo to show off the singers voice with many notes
and a wide range of pitches
Recitative: an operetic solo that is almost like speaking with a few
Acapella: Singing without instrumental accompaniment
Overture: A musical introduction before a ballet musical or opera
which usually contains bits of music from the entire work
 Soprano: Highest adult female (also children)
 Alto: Lowest adult female
 Tenor: Highest adult male
 Baritone: Middle adult male
 Bass: Lowest adult male
 Puccini, Verdi (Italian)
 Wagner (German)
 Gilbert and Sullivan (British) – musicals
 Rodgers and Hammerstein
 By: Rodgers and Hammerstein
 Setting: Austria, 1939 just before WWII
Main Characters
Captain von Trappe
Voice Part
 By: Leonard Bernstein
 Setting: NY City, late 1900’s
 Rival gangs (Sharks & Jets)
Main Characters
Voice Part
**Adapted from Romeo and Juliet
**Inspired The Outsiders
 By: Puccini
 Setting: Japan, early 1900’s
Main Characters
Cio Cio (butterfly)
Suzuki (maid)
Pinkerton (American Navy)
Sharpless (American Consul)
Voice Part
 By: George and Ira Gershwin
 Setting: South Carolina coast, late 1800’s
Main Characters
Sportin’ Life
Voice Part