Renaissance Chapter 12 Meaning and Characteristics • “rebirth” of antiquity in Italy between 1350 and 1550 (Greco-Roman civilization) • Jacob Berckhardt, 1860 The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy-stated Italy was the birthplace of the modern world with the revival of antiquity, the “perfecting of the individual,” and secularism. • Secular spirit arose in urban city-states due to the new merchant wealth—centers of political, economic, and social life. • Age of recovery and rediscovery and attempts to reconcile pagan philosophy with Christianity. • Individualism-new social ideal • Product of an elite movement (upper class) Society A. Economic Recovery • Expansion of trade-N. German Hanseatic League traded with the Flanders Fleet of Venice in Bruges, Flanders • Industry-wool & textiles, luxuries such as silk and glassware, printing, mining, metallurgy; new technology aided mining which in turn will lead to new tech. in firearms • Banking and the Medici-Florence; Medici family expanded from textiles into commerce, real estate, and banking. 15th c. the Medici family had banks throughout Europe and had controlling interests in several industries and even were the principal bankers of the papacy. Poor leadership and bad loans led to their decline toward the end of the 15th c. B. Social Changes—society stays divided into 3 estates (1-clergy, 2nobility, 3-peasants) 1. Nobility—still made up between 2 and 3 percent of the population; educated; declining income with land; new blood entering the ranks a. Castiglione “Book of the Courtier”; handbook for nobility; “Renaissance man”-classical education, character, grace, achievements, physically fit, follow a standard of conduct-serve prince 2. Peasants and Townspeople-decline of manorialism and serfdom with a money economy; urban society-patricians (dominated urban communities, burgher, property-less workers and unemployed (30-40%), slaves (by end of 15th c. declined in Italy) Italian States 5 Major States: Milan, Venice, Florence, the Papal States, and Naples; – Francesco Sforza conquered Milan in became the new duke of Milan; created a highly centralized territorial state with a successful tax system that generated great wealth; – Venice-commercial empire; – Florence, dominated Tuscany and was governed by the Medici family (despite being a Republic); – Papal States-cities became independent during the Babylonian Captivity and popes tried to reassert their power; – Naples-Southern Italy, backward, nobles dominated, poverty-stricken peasants Independent City-states—centers of Renaissance culture • Urbino-Duke Federigo da Montefeltro-great patron on the Renaissance; Urbino became a cultural and intellectual center • Isabella d’Este (portrait by Titian)-daughter of the duke of Farrara and wife of Francesco Gonzaga, the Marquis of Mantua; known for her intelligence, she effectively ruled Mantua; surrounded by artists and intellectuals, created one of the finest libraries Machiavelli • Florence-1498; Secretary to the Florentine Council of Ten; sent into exile in 1512 with the reestablishment of Medici power and forced to give up politics, he wrote his reflections on political power in The Prince and other writings. • The Prince reveals his preoccupation of political problems and his concerns with the maintenance and expansion of power in order to maintain stability. Intellectual Renaissance A. Humanism (humanities)-intellectual movement based on the study of the classical literary works of Greece and Rome; liberal arts—grammar, rhetoric, poetry, ethics, history-all based on the writings of ancient Greeks and Romans 1. Petrarch-father of Renaissance humanism; 1st to characterize the MA as a period of darkness; quest in recovering Latin manuscripts; humanist emphasis on use of pure classical Latin (Cicero-prose and Virgil-poetry); a. Civic humanism-service to the state b. Leonardo Bruni – Greek poets, dramatists, historians, orators, etc. c. Florentine Platonic Academy—translation of Plato’s dialogues and philosophies by Marsilio Ficino (Neoplatonism); synthesis of Christianity and Platonism; Platonic love d. Hermeticism-(2 topics) occult sciences and pantheism (divinity in all things); Giovanni Pico della Mirandola-unlimited human potential B. Education-human beings can be dramatically changed by education; developed secondary schools 1. Vittorino de Feltre 1423 Mantua; Gian Francesco I Gonzaga wished to provide a humanist education for his children. School based on the ideas of classical authors; “liberal studies” key to freedom, enabling individuals to reach their full potential (idea came from Pietro Paolo Vergerio’s treatise Concerning Character) 2. Humanist education was to produce complete citizens in preparation for life who could participate in the civic community, not to create scholars; model for educating the European ruling class until the 20th c. C. History- new sense of chronology and periodization, secularized the writing of history based on the analysis of documents, political events and forces, and the conception of causation; Leonardo Bruni History of the Florentine People 1. 16th c. Francesco Guicciardini-beginning of “modern analytical historiography” with History of Italy and History of Florence; works relied heavily on personal examples and documentary sources D. Printing: 1450, movable type, Gutenburg, Venice became a center of printing, by 1500-more than a thousand printers published almost 40,000 titles (1/2 religious); one of the largest industries in Europe 1. encouraged the development of scholarly research and desire for knowledge 2. facilitated cooperation among scholars and produced standardized texts 3. stimulated the development of an expanding lay reading public 4. Reformation Artistic Renaissance • • Imitation of nature primary goal; search for naturalism, persuade onlookers of the reality of the object/event, human beings became the focus of attention Early Renaissance • • • • • • • Giotto (14th c. imitation of nature) Masaccio-Florence; 1st masterpiece of Renaissance art with frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel (monumental figures, realism, & perspective) Uccello-mastered laws of perspective Botticelli-Greek/Roman mythology Donatello-David 1st known, life-size free-standing bronze since antiquity; celebrated Florentine heroism over the Milanese in 1428 Brunelleschi-Duomo-new building techniques and machinery to create a dome; Church of San Lorenzo-interior with classical columns, rounded arches, and ceiling that would not overwhelm portraiture High Renaissance-1480-1520; increasing importance of Rome as the new cultural center • • • da Vinci-transitional figure, realism and idealization Raphael-frescoes at the Vatican, School of Athens-world of balance, harmony, and order Michelangelo-painter, sculptor, and architect; influenced by Neoplatonism; divine beauty Giotto-The Mourning of Christ Adoration of the Magi Masaccio - The Tribute Money, fresco in the Brancacci Chapel in Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence Holy Trinity, in full: "Trinity with the Virgin, Saint John the Evangelist, and Donors" (c. 1427) Fresco, Santa Maria Novella, Florence Uccello-The Princess and the Dragon, 1470 Botticelli- Primavera: Venus, Greek goddess of love, is surrounded by the goddesses of flower and fertility, banquets, dance and social occasions. Above her is her son Cupid, the god of love. The entire scene is based on Greek mythology but it is often interpreted as an allegory for the Virgin Mary. Venus and Mars, 1483 Donatello - David Brunelleschi Duomo of Florence, Santa Maria del Fiore Basilica di San Lorenzo di Firenze, Florence Da Vinci-The Last Supper- a 15th century mural painting in Milan, created for his patron Duke Lodovico Sforza. It represents the scene of The Last Supper from the final days of Jesus as depicted in the Bible. The painting is based on John 13:21, where Jesus announced that one of his 12 disciples would betray him. All twelve apostles have different reactions to the news, with various degrees of anger and shock. The Vitruvian Man-This image, from a journal called the Canon of Proportions, provides the perfect example of Leonardo's keen interest in proportion. In addition, this picture represents a cornerstone of Leonardo's attempts to relate man to nature. The drawing itself is often used as an implied symbol of the essential symmetry of the human body. It is an example of the blend of art and science during the Renaissance. Mona Lisa - famous for her facial expression and the subtlety of the transitions of tone and color. Leonardo used a pyramid design to place the woman simply and calmly in the space of the painting. The painting was one of the first portraits to depict the sitter before an imaginary landscape. The painting has been restored numerous times; X-ray examinations have shown that there are three versions of the Mona Lisa hidden under the present one. Raphael-School of Athens, 1511-1512 Michelangelo Sistine Chapel - is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Roman Catholic Pope in the Vatican City. The Sistine Chapel is rectangular and measures 134.28 feet long by 44 feet wide (the dimensions of the Temple of Solomon, as given in the Old Testament). It is 67.91 feet high and is roofed by a flattened barrel vault, with small side vaults over the 6 centered windows. The pavement is in opus alexandrinum, technique or a method or a style of connecting building elements, following the studies on Roman architecture . The Last Judgement - painting by Michelangelo located in the Sistine Chapel, above the altar. The work is massive and spans the entire wall behind the altar of the Sistine Chapel. It was executed from 1535 to 1541 and is a depiction of the second coming of Christ and the apocalypse. The souls of humans rise and descend to their fates, as judged by Christ and his Saintly entourage. Creation of Adam St. Peter’s Basilica: ranks second among the four major basilicas of Rome. It is the most prominent building inside the Vatican City. Michelangelo's dome is also the dominant feature of the Roman skyline. Possibly the largest church in Christianity (see Yamoussoukro), it covers an area of 5.7 acres (23,000 m²) and has a capacity of over 60,000 people. Pietà an artwork depicting the Virgin Mary cradling the dead body of Christ. As such, it is a particular form of the devotional theme of Our Lady of Sorrows. It is currently located in the Vatican. The statue was made for French cardinal Jean de Billheres’ funeral monument. Northern Renaissance – More emphasis on illuminated manuscripts and wooden panel painting for altarpieces; masters at rendering details; Flanders; 1st to use oil paint – Van Eyck-observation of visual reality, accurate portrayal of details; emotional intensity of religious feeling and created great works of devotional art – Durer-influenced by the Italians, integrate details with a standard of ideal beauty Van EyckGiovanni Arnolfini and his Bride, 1434 Ghent altarpiece, 1432 La Madone au Chanoine Van der Paele, 1434 Durer Self portrait, 1471 Lamentation of Christ, 1500-1503 European States-”new monarchies” of western Europe – – France-monarchy used nationalist feelings created during the Hundred Years’ War over hatred of a common enemy; Charles VII-royal army and the ability to levy the taille (direct tax on property with no need for Estates-General approval); King Louis XI retained the taille and acquired Burgundy and other provinces England-Tudor dynasty established by Henry VII at the end of the War of the Roses when the last Yorkist King was defeated (Richard III). Gained support of middle class by not levying taxes on them, didn’t call Parliament b/c stayed out of wars, ended noble wars through ending “livery and maintenance” (private armies), established the Court of the Star Chamber (no juries and torture allowed). – Spain-Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille; union of rulers-both maintained their own parliaments, courts, laws, coinage, speech, customs, and political organs; worked to strengthen royal control; removed aristocrats from the royal council and replaced with middle class lawyers; royal army; secured to right to elect church officials from the pope; religious uniformity (Inquisition) – Holy Roman Empire-no strong monarchical authority; HRE Hapsburg dynasty (Austria landholdings); influence through marriage— Charles will be heir to Hapsburg, Spanish, and Burgundian lines. Saint Dominic presiding over an Auto de fé, as depicted by Pedro Berruguete 1495 Church – Heresy and Reform • • • – Wyclif-followers called Lollards; alleged no basis in Scripture for papal claims of temporal authority; Bible should be sole authority and in vernacular; condemned all practices not in Scripture Hus-Lollard ideas spread to Bohemia where John Hus urged the elimination of worldliness of the clergy and Church; he was arrested at the Council of Constance, condemned as a heretic, and burned at the stake. This led to revolutionary upheaval. Reform-Council of Constance attempted reform but it was unsuccessful. (Sacrosancta and Frequens). Popes worked to defeat the conciliar movement. Execrabilis – Pope Pius II condemned appeals to the council over the head of the pope as heretical. Papacy-further decline; from the end of the Great Schism (1417) to the beginnings of the Reformation—interest in Papal States and Italian politics. Julius II “warrior pope” led armies against his enemies. Nepotism-Pope Sixtus IV made 5 nephews cardinals; patrons of the Renaissance—Julius II began construction on Saint Peter’s Basilica.