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The Spirit of the
• The Crusades made Europeans
eager to learn about the world
around them
• Church leaders became patrons
of the arts by financially
supporting artists
• Scholars became interested in ancient
Greek and Roman culture
• Artists used ancient art as models
• Brunelleschi designed buildings
after studying Roman ruins
The Renaissance
Means “rebirth”
– Specifically a revival in art & literature
Began in the northern Italian citystates in the 1300s, lasted until around
the 1600s
Why did the Renaissance start in Italy?
Thriving Cities
Trade led to growth of city-states, making them very rich &
Exs: Florence, Pisa, Venice, Genoa, Milan
Controlled trade on the Mediterranean Sea
Economic Changes
When the plague struck, it left fewer laborers
Survivors demanded higher wages
Expanded the middle class, which began to pursue other
interests, like art, because there were few opportunities to
expand business
Why did the Renaissance start in Italy?
2. Classical heritage of Greece & Rome
Artists & scholars of Italy drew inspiration from the
ruins of Rome that surrounded them
Western scholars studied ancient Latin
manuscripts that had been preserved in
Christian scholars in Constantinople fled to Rome
with Greek manuscripts when the Ottoman Turks
conquered Constantinople in 1453
Why did the Renaissance start in Italy?
3. Wealthy Merchant Class
– Merchants dominated political life
Did not inherit wealth, earned it
Believed this gave them the right to be
– This belief in individual achievement became
important during the Renaissance, leading to new
art forms, biographies, and portraits
Why did the Renaissance start in Italy?
3. Wealthy Merchant Class
Why Florence?
Was mostly urban while the rest of Europe was
Because Florence was small, many of its
citizens could be involved in politics
The Medici Family
Banking family that ruled Florence’s gov’t
Used wealth to be generous patrons of the arts
Niccolò Machiavelli
Wrote The Prince (1513)
Writings demonstrated the value of humanism (more to come
on this later)
A guidebook for rulers
Recommended realistic actions a ruler could take to stay in
Machiavelli wrote that it a ruler should be kind and generous if
able, but it is better to “be feared than loved”
A ruler should use any means necessary to achieve goals
The “end justifies the means”
Ideas About Life Change
People remained devoutly Catholic
The spirit of society, however, was secular
Church leaders and the wealthy believed
they could enjoy life and liberty without
offending God
This is humanism (again, more on this later)
Dome Comparisons
Il Duomo
St. Peter’s
St. Paul’s
US capital
A New Type of Scholar
Called a Humanist
• Humanists learned many subjects,
such as Latin, Greek history, and
• In the Middle Ages, religious people
proved their piety by living a plain
life—humanists enjoyed life without
offending God
A Belief in Human
• Emphasized human achievement on
earth, rather than the afterlife
• Renaissance thinkers strove to master
almost every art
• Later ages called such people
“Renaissance men”
• Individuals became the center
of attention during the
Renaissance as the belief in
human potential & ability began
to emerge from Medieval ways
of thinking
• Ideal Man—was well educated
in the Classics; should be
charming, witty, & smart; can
dance, write poetry, & play
music; should be physically fit
(called a “Renaissance Man”)
• Ideal Woman—study Classics;
write, dance, paint, make music
well; but should not seek fame or
political power (Renaissance
women were far better educated
but had fewer rights than
Medieval women)
Artists & Sculptors
Influenced by Greeks & Romans
Emphasis on individual caused:
Portraits of prominent citizens, showing what was distinctive about
Glorification of the human body in natural postures
Perspective to enhance realism
Drawing objects smaller if they are far away (3D)
No more Gothic
Returned to columns and domes
“The Renaissance Man”
Well educated in the Classics
– Knowledgeable in many subject areas
Charming, witty, smart
Could dance, write poetry, play music
Should be physically fit
Was a “Jack of all Trades”
The Renaissance Woman
Should study the Classics
Could write, dance, paint, and make music
Should NOT seek fame or political power
– Renaissance women were far better educated
but had fewer rights than Medieval women
Leonardo da Vinci
Considered to be a true “Renaissance
Studied the human body & flight
Was an inventor, sculptor, painter, &
the Artist
From his Notebooks of over 5000
His “Last Supper” shows Jesus’
last meeting with the 12 apostles
before the crucifixion
The facial expressions, detail,
and emotion had made it a
The Last Supper – da Vinci,
& Geometry
More Geometry
Convent of
Santa Maria
delle Grazie
Milan, Italy
da Vinci’s
Mona Lisa
is great for its
emotion and
Mona Lisa has no visible facial
hair at all - including eyebrows
and eyelashes
A Picasso Mona
On August 12, 1911, a Louvre
employee stole it by entering the
building during regular hours, hiding in
a broom closet and walking out with it
hidden under his coat after the
museum had closed
After keeping the painting in his
apartment for two years, the man grew
impatient and was caught when he
attempted to sell it to an art dealer; it
was exhibited all over Italy and
returned to the Louvre in 1913
In 1956, the lower part of the painting
was severely damaged when someone
doused it with acid
On December 30 of that same year,
another person damaged the painting
by throwing a rock at it
The result was a speck of pigment
near Mona Lisa's left elbow
The painting is now covered with
bulletproof security glass
Leonardo, the
Pages from his
Leonardo, the Engineer:
several designs
for flying
including this
one with a
rotating screw
He intended to
power it with a
Leonardo’s many
military inventions
included this
design for an
armored tank
Four soldiers
sitting inside
could turn cranks
to move the
wheels on this
da Vinci also
invented a gigantic
It's difficult to know
whether it would
have worked, or
whether it would
have been
superior to
cannons of the
same period
The length of a man's
outspread arms is equal to
his height
The maximum width of the
shoulders is a quarter of a
man's height
The distance from the
elbow to the tip of the hand
is one-fifth of a man's
Michelangelo was a great painter &
sculptor; his “Pieta” & “David”
sculptures are perceived as
His greatest work is the 130 ft x 44 ft
ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, which
shows biblical images of amazing detail,
power, & beauty
“Pieta” depicts
the Virgin Mary
cradling the
limp body of the
crucified Jesus
statue of “David”
expresses the
Renaissance belief
in human dignity
and greatness
The Ceiling of the
Sistine Chapel
painted more than
300 massive human
figures onto the
5,800 square-foot
ceiling while laying
on his back
The ceiling contains
illustrations from the
creation of Adam to
the story of Noah
of the
The Sistine Chapel Details
Creation of Man
returned to the
chapel to
begin painting
the altarpiece
“The Last
This painting
features Christ
judging souls
as the rise and
fall from each
side of the
flayed skin
Raphael “perfected” Renaissance painting
He became the favorite painter of the Pope
because of his amazing detailed paintings
showing Greeks & Romans along with
Renaissance people
“School of Athens” is his greatest work
All of the important Greek
philosophers and thinkers are included
in this painting  all of the great
personalities of the classical period
A great variety of poses
Raphael worked on this commission
simultaneously as Michelangelo was
doing the Sistine Chapel
Plato and Aristotle
Alexander the Great
Donatello was the greatest sculptor of
the Renaissance
Medieval sculptors only carved the
front of a statue, but Donatello wanted
sculptures to be viewed from all sides
like Greek & Roman statues
Donatello’s “David”
became the first
large, free-standing
human sculpture
The Humanities
Subjects taught in ancient Rome & Greece
Grammar, Rhetoric, Poetry, History
Outlook focusing on human potential &
Humanists were practical; they wanted to learn about the
world and wrote in the vernacular (common language) either
for self-expression or to portray the individuality of their
Ancient writings, rediscovered after being lost during the
Middle Ages, influenced this movement
Francesco Petrarch (1304-1374)
Writer from Florence
Traveled all over Europe looking for old
writings and realized how much had been
Wrote sonnets in Italian about Laura, his
ideal woman
He also wrote in Latin
Dante Alighieri (1265-1321)
Poet from Florence
Wrote The Divine Comedy
The story is about Dante’s journey through Hell,
Purgatory, and Paradise
Written in the vernacular (everyday language) so
everyone could enjoy his writing
Desiderius Erasmus (1469?-1536)
Christian Humanist writer
Wrote the book In Praise of Folly
Poked fun at flaws in real people, such as greedy merchants,
arrogant priests, etc.
Criticized the Church for teaching rituals instead of following
Believed the clergy was ignorant
Believed in Christianity of the heart, not in a religion of rules and
Believed that to improve society, people should study the Bible
Believed basis of education should be Roman & Greek classics
Sir Thomas More (1478-1535)
Christian writer who was concerned with
society’s flaws
– Said literature should serve Christian goals
Wrote Utopia
– Described his ideal society, where people
worked hard, lived in peace, and were welleducated
William Shakespeare (1564?-1616)
English writer
Invented 1,700 new words in 37 plays
Plays examined human flaws and also
expressed the Renaissance’s high view of
human nature
He drew on Greek and Roman classics for some
of his plots
Exs: Julius Caesar, Antony & Cleopatra
Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616)
Spanish writer
Wrote Don Quixote de la Mancha
– Birth of modern European novel
– It is about a poor Spanish nobleman who
went a little crazy after reading too many
books about heroic knights
The Printing Press
The most important invention of the 1400s
It was a gradual process:
First, they learned to make paper from the Arabs
Then came the development of printing blocks
and moveable type
Johann Gutenberg built the first printing press
in 1455 and used it to print a Bible
The Printing Press
Spread ideas – crucial for the success of the
Books became cheap so many people could
buy them (especially the Bible)
Books written in vernacular for people who had not had
classical educations
Revolutionized learning because books were so readily
available, so more people learned to read
The Protestant
The Protestant Reformation
Religious reform movement that divided the
western church into Catholic and Protestant
Events Leading to the Reformation
1. Christian Humanism
Began in Northern Europe
Goal: Reform the Catholic Church
Erasmus was the leader of Christian
Events Leading to the Reformation
2. Corruption within the Catholic Church
People were looking for salvation
Church leaders did not seem concerned with
the spiritual needs of the people
Indulgences (release from all or part of the
punishment for sin) were being sold by the
Events Leading to the Reformation
3. Martin Luther &
his 95 Theses
Luther was a monk & a
He became convinced
that humans are saved
through their faith and
God alone
He believed that the
Bible, not the Church,
was the only source for
religious truth
Luther posts his 95 Theses on the
church door at Wittenberg.
Luther attacked JohannTetzel, a friar, for
selling indugences. The theses were a list of
questions & an attack on the abuses being
committed by the Chuch
Luther called for only two sacraments
(Baptism and Communion) and called for
clergy members to be allowed to marry
Luther’s words were spread all over
Germany and attracted many followers
Luther is excommunicated and
declared an outlaw & heretic in 1521.
The pope realized that Luther was a serious threat to
papal authority. The emperor, a devout Catholic, also
felt threatened.
Luther was sheltered in Saxony where he translated
the New Testament into German. When he returned to
Wittenberg, he found many of his ideas already in use.
He and his followers had become a separate religious
group called Lutherans.
Became the first Protestant faith of
Featured services including Bible
readings, preaching the word of God, and
Many German territories took control of
Catholic Churches and formed state
Protestant Churches
Politics During the Reformation
Holy Roman Empire under Charles V
suffered from internal & external pressures
Individual German territories became more
powerful due to Renaissance trade
Calvinism Spreads
1536: John Calvin publishes
Institutes of the Christian Religion
Expressed his ideas about God, salvation, and
human nature
Wrote that men & women are sinful by nature
Expanded Luther’s ideas that humans cannot
earn salvation & said that God chooses a very few
people to save, called the “elect”
God has known since the beginning of time who
will be saved
This doctrine is called predestination
Calvinism eventually replaced Lutheranism as
the fastest growing Protestant religion in Europe
The Peace of Augsburg is signed.
The Holy Roman Emperor had fought
a war against the German Protestant
princes and defeated them. However, he
could not force them back into the
Catholic Church.
The settlement ended the war and
allowed the ruler of each German state to
decide his state’s religion.
This formally recognized the split
between Catholicism & Protestantism
The Catholic Counter Reformation
Movement in which the Roman Catholic Church sought
to make changes within the Church in response to the
Protestant Reformation
The Catholic Counter Reformation
Three Driving Forces:
1. Jesuits
Founded by Ignatius of Loyola (Spanish
Three Major Activities:
1. Founded & staffed schools throughout Europe
2. Sent out missionaries to convert non-Christians
to Catholicism
3. Sought to stop Protestantism from spreading
*Their work was so long lasting because the
missionaries that were sent out founded
schools, colleges, & universities around the
The Catholic Counter Reformation
Three Driving Forces:
2. Reform of Papacy
In response to corruption within the Church
Pope Paul III
Had a council of cardinals investigate abuses within the
Approved the Jesuit order
Used the Inquisition to identify & punish heresy in papal
Convened the Council of Trent
Pope Paul IV
Carried out council’s decrees
Had the council draw up an Index of Forbidden Books
Had offensive books collected and burned
The Catholic Counter Reformation
Three Driving Forces:
3. Council of Trent (1545-1563)
Reaffirmed the split between the Catholic & Protestant churches
Catholic bishops & cardinals agreed on several doctrines:
The Church's interpretation of the Bible was final. Any Christian
who substituted his or her own interpretation was a heretic.
Christians needed faith and good works for salvation. They were
not saved by faith alone, as Luther argued.
The Bible and Church tradition were equally powerful authorities
for guiding Christian life.
Indulgences were valid expressions of faith. But the false selling of
indulgences was banned.
English Parliament approved the Act of Supremacy.
Henry VIII needed to annul his marriage to Catherine
of Aragon and remarry in order to have a male heir.
When the pope would not agree to this, Henry called a
Reformation Parliament to strip away the pope’s power
in England. The Act of Supremacy completed this
break with the pope by making the king the head of
England’s church.
This was different from the Protestant
Reformation because it took place for
political reasons
Henry closed all English monasteries and seized their
wealth and land. This act increased royal power as well
as the king’s treasury.
Parliament established the Anglican
Elizabeth I returned England from Catholicsm
(under Queen Mary) to Protestantism and asked
Parliament to set up a national church.
The Anglican Church became the only legal
church in England and people were required to
attend its services. Elizabeth organized the church
so that both Catholic moderates and Protestant
moderates might accept it.
Effects of the Reformation
Church authority declined; individual monarchs & states gained
1600s – rulers of nation-states sought more power for themselves
and countries through warfare, exploration, and expansion
Groundwork was laid for the Enlightenment
Protestant churches flourished
Roman Catholic Church became more unified as a result of the
reforms at the Council of Trent
Both religious put an emphasis on education in promoting beliefs
 led to new schools & universities
Women remained mainly limited to concerns of home & family
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
Polish mathematician & astronomer
Wrote a book called On the Revolution of
the Heavenly Bodies
Challenged the theories of Ptolemy, which
stated that the Earth was the center of the
Copernicus had two theories:
1. Earth rotates on its own axis
2. Earth and the planets revolve around the sun.
» He had no proof, so his theories were rejected.
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
Agreed with Copernicus
Used mathematics to prove Copernicus was correct
Mathematical laws govern planetary motion
Orbits of the planets are elliptical, not circular
His ideas influenced Galileo
Galileo’s and Kepler’s work made Catholics question church
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
Used the telescope to prove Kepler’s theories
Contributed to the development of the Scientific Method
(based on testing hypotheses)
Announced these discoveries in the early 1600s:
Observed rough surface of the moon and the sun
Discovered four moons of Jupiter
Each pendulum swing takes the same amount of time
Falling objects accelerate at a fixed rate
Catholic Church
Forbade the teachings of Copernicus and Galileo was brought
before the Inquisition
To avoid execution, Galileo admitted he was wrong (even though
he knew he was not)
• He continued his work from his home and kept journals, which
were found later, after his death
Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
English mathematician
Wrote a book called Mathematical
Principles of Natural Philosophy
Invented calculus
Developed laws of nature & physics
– The same force, gravity, rules all matter on
earth and in space
– Every object in the universe attracts every
• The degree of attraction is determined by
mass and distance
Developments in Scientific Instruments
• Inventions:
Developments in Medicine
• Study of human anatomy
• First vaccine (against
• Ointment to stop infection
• Stitching of wounds
• William Harvey discovered
that the heart is a pump and
circulates blood throughout the
Developments in Chemistry
• Boyle’s Law
– Explained the
relationship of
temperature, and
pressure of gas
• Discovery of