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Renaissance and Reformation
Mid 1300’s to Mid 1600’s- Chapter 14
Michelangelo
38
Henry the Navigator
Medici in Florence
• Banking, mining, wool
and others
• Money equals power
• *Lorenzo “The
Magnificent” financed
the arts ‘Patron
1449 - 1492
Whoever wants to be happy, let him be so:
about tomorrow there's no knowing
The Arts…Reflected Humanism
*Realism
The style of art in which the
artist strives to make the
painted scene look as real
and natural as possible.
*Perspective
Creating the illusion of space
and distance on a flat
surface such as a canvas
or wall
Ninja Turtles named after 4
Renaissance Artists
Donatello
1386-1466
• Born in
Florence
• Father was
Wool Guild
Master
Bronze David
• First free standing
nude sculpture 1430
• Some believe he
portray artists own
sexuality
Leonardo da Vinci
1452-1519
*Sfumato… misty
atmosphere
Painter
*Perspective
Mona Lisa OR da Vinci??
Inventor
Scientist
MICHELANGELO di
Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni
Sculptor
Painter
Architect
1475-1564
Sculptor
Pietà
1499
Marble
Moses 1515
Marble
David 1504
Marble
15c
What
a
difference
a
century
makes!
16c
Painter
The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
Completed between 1508 and 1512
Last Judgment
1536 - 1541
Architect
Raphael
1483 - 1520
“The Prince of Painters."
Madonna del
Cardellino
1507
Stanze in the Palazzi Pontifici,
Vatican
The School
of Athens
1509
Renaissance in Northern Europe
(1500-1615)
Begins…after the plague
Albrecht Durer (German Leonardo)
In the prosperous cities of
Flanders
The rest of Europe
followed 100 yrs later
St Anne with
the Virgin and
Child
Literature in the North
*Started writing for the common people using their language
Rabelis
Shakespeare
•Wrote stories about •Wrote 37 plays about
social problems and
Giants
political power
Cervantes
•Spanish mocked
medieval chivalry
with Don Quixote
The printing press
Technology
•By 1300's paper making
•By 1400's movable type
*Impact
•1456 Johann Gutenberg
printed the bible using metal
moveable type
•Books were cheaper
•By 1500, more than 20
million books were printed
•Knowledge level increased
•By 1600, 200 million were in
circulation
•Literacy rate began to go up
•People were exposed to new
ideas
Indulgences
• The Church (Pope Leo X) also promoted
the sale of indulgences (pardon for a sin
committed during a person’s lifetime).
• In the Middle Ages they were given
because of good deeds but that changed
in the Renaissance
• By the 1400’s the church was selling
them for money
Martin Luther
Posted 95 Theses
• A list against indulgences
– Printed and distributed all
over Europe
• Excommunicated in 1521
• Went into hiding
• Became a hero to
thousands
1483 - 1546
*Luther’s Teachings
• Justification by faith
• Bible was the only source of religious truth
• Rejected church priesthood saying all who believed had the
priesthood
• Rejected five of the seven sacraments
• Banned indulgences, confession, pilgrimages and prayer to
saints
• Abolished elaborate ritual and ceremony
• Allowed clergy to marry
*Protestants...those who
protested papal authority
John Calvin…Set up a theocracy in
Geneva
• Salvation through faith alone
• *Predestination…Saints and sinners
• Stressed hard work, discipline, thrift,
honesty and morality
• Spread to Germany, France,
Netherlands, England and Scotland
14.4
Other Reformation Ideas
*Anabaptists
• Rejected infant baptism
• Some sought radical social change
• Abolition of private property
Mennonites and
Amish have
their roots in
Anabaptists
• Most were peaceful and law abiding
Stressed the fact that salvation is a gift from God; yet, they also
taught that it is a conditional gift, which can be taken away from the
disobedient
Catholic Reformation
*1530's and 1540's Pope
Paul III
• Revive the moral
authority of the church
•Appointed reformers to
key posts
*Inquisition
• Church court to root
out heresies
• Index of forbidden
books
*Council of Trent 1545
• Reaffirmed traditional views
• Bible was not the only source
of God’s word
• Stiff penalties for corruption in
the clergy
• Established new schools to
educate the clergy
*Results of the Catholic
Reformation
The church regained
some of it’s former
power
Europe remained divided
• Protestant north
• Catholic south
Ignatius Loyola…Jesuits
Religious fever spread over
Europe
• Protestants against Catholic
• Both against radical groups like
Anabaptists
*Jews in Europe
• Spain kicked them out
• Italy put them in ghettos
• Germany made them wear a
yellow badge
First "official" ghetto
established in Rome in
1555
Wore a yellow star
• Luther wanted them expelled
and their synagogues/books
burned
•Dutch Calvinists took them in
ALL DONE