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Transcript
Substance
Nouns name things. Each noun changes form to indicate
its case, number, and gender. Every noun will be either
masculine or feminine or neuter.
Substantives are classified by case, number and gender.
Case
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Articles In English, the articles are “the” and “a.” The
article changes form to match the noun it modifies. The
Greek article differs from English articles in three ways:
1. There is no indefinite article in Greek (a, an).
2. The use of the article is much more versatile than in
English.
3. The article always changes form to match the noun it
modifies.
Adjectives modify nouns. (The brown dog.) Adjectives
change form to match the noun they modify.
Number
Singular
Plural
Gender
Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
Case tells us how the word functions in the sentence.
Very generally...
• the nominative case indicates the subject
• the genitive case indicates possession
• the dative case identifies the indirect object
• the accusative case identifies the direct object
Number tells us if there is one or more than one.
Pronouns are little words that stand in for nouns.
Gender tells if the word is masculine, feminine, or
neuter. All Greek substantives have gender.
Pronouns change form to match the noun they replace.
Motion
Verbs
Recognizing how Greek verbs change form is a big part
of learning the language. There are so many forms that
this can be horribly frustrating. There is a big payoff,
though. Verbal nuances are often lost in translation.
put things into motion. (The monkey flies.) Verbs
have tense, voice, mood, person and number.
Adverbs modify verbs. (Row, row, row your boat,
gently down the stream.) Adverbs do not change form.
Participles are verbal adjectives. In English, these are
often the “ing” words. They can act like adjectives (“the
hunting dog”) or adverbs (“While hunting, I lost my dog.”).
Like verbs, participles have tense, voice. Like adjectives,
participles have case number and gender.
Tense
Voice Participle
Present
Aorist
PeRfect
Active
Middle
Passive
Participle
Case Number Gender
Nominative
Masculine
Genitive Singular
Feminine
Dative
Plural
Neuter
Accusative
Tense
Voice
Present
Imperfect
Future
Aorist
PeRfect
Active
Middle
Passive
Mood
Person Number
Indicative 1 First
Subjunctive 2 Second
IMperative
3 Third
(Participle)*
(INfinitive)*
Singular
Plural
• Tense: What kind of action is it? When did it happen?
• Voice: Was the subject of the verb giving the action,
receiving the action, or acting upon itself?
• Mood: What is the relationship of the statement to
reality?
• Person: Was the subject I, you, or he/she/it?
• Number: Was the subject singular or plural?
Infinitives are verbal nouns. In English these are the
“to be” verbs. (To learn is my greatest joy.) Infinitives only
have tense and voice.
* infinitives and participles are not “moods” but they are normally
identified in this column.
Parts of Speech
Relationship
Conjunctions are little words that connect phrases to one another.
Substance
Motion
Relationship
Nouns
Verbs
Conjunctions
Articles
Adverbs
Prepositions
Adjectives
Participles
Pronouns
Infinitives
(I like Greek but it is hard.) These do not change form.
Prepositions are anything you can do with a box. In the box. Under
the box. Around the box. Through the box… Prepositions never change
form. They do have one little obnoxious habit. Their meaning changes
depending on the case of their object.
1
© Greek with Maury 2013
Noun Endings
Masculine
(2nd declension)
oV
ou
w/
on
Nominative
subject
Singular
Genitive
possession
Dative
in, with, to, by
Accusative
object
oi
wn
oiV
ouV
Nominative
subject
Genitive
Plural
possession
Dative
in, with, to, by
Accusative
object
Feminine
(1st declension)
logoV
a
logou
of a word aV
logw/
a/
to a word
logon
an
word
word
logoi
words
logwn
of words
logoiV
to words
logouV
words
or
or
or
or
h
hV
h/
hn
ai
wn
aiV
aV
Neuter
(2nd declension)
arch
beginning
archV
of a beginning
arch//
to a beginning
archn
beginning
arcai
beginnings
arcwn
of beginnings
arcaiV
to beginnings
arcaV
beginnings
ergon
on
ou
w/
on
work
ergou
of work
ergw/
to work
ergon
work
erga
a
wn
oiV
a
works
ergwn
of works
ergoiV
to works
erga
works
oJ
tou:
tw:/
tovn
hJ
th:V
th:/
thvn
tov
tou:
tw:/
tov
Accusative “the”
oiJ
tw:n
toi:V
touvV
aiJ
tw:n
tai:V
tavV
tav
tw:n
toi:V
tav
1st Person
2nd Person
Dative
“to the”
Accusative the
Genitive
“of the”
Dative
“to the”
Gen
Dat
Acc
Plural
Nom
Gen
Dat
Acc
I
ejgwv
mou ejmou: my
moi ejmoiv to me
me ejmev me
hJmei:V
hJmw:n
hJmi:n
hJma:V
Nom
Singular
Singular
Nom
we
our
to us
us
Gen
Dat
Acc
Nom
Plural
Plural
Plural
Nominative “the”
Gen
Dat
Acc
of flesh
sarki
to flesh
sarka
flesh
light
fwtoV
of light
fwti
to light
fwV
light
fwta
a
wn
sin
a
lights
fwtwn
of lights
fwsin
to lights
fwta
lights
you
suv
sou sou: your
soi soiv to you
se sev you
uJmei:V
uJJmw:n
uJJmi:n
uJJma:V
to you
Gen
Dat
Acc
oi{
w|n
oi|V
ou{V
Nom
Gen
Dat
Acc
M (2)
Nom
Gen
Dat
Acc
you
your
o{V
ou|
w/|
o{n
Nom
F (1)
who
of whom
to whom
whom
who
of whom
to whom
whom
h{
h|V
h|/
h{n
N (2)
who
of whom
to whom
whom
ai{ who
w|n of whom
ai|V to whom
a{V whom
o}
ou|
w|/
o{
which
of which
to which
which
a{ which
w|n of which
oi|V to which
a{ which
3rd Person Pronoun
Singular
“of the”
sarkoV
eV sarkeV
fleshes
wn sarkwn
of fleshes
sin tosarxin
fleshes
aV sarkaV
fleshes
fwV
oV
i
-
flesh
M (2)
Singular
N (2)
Plural
F (1)
Nom
Plural
Singular
Singular
M (2)
Genitive
sarx
V
oV
i
a
Relative Pronoun
The Article
Nominative “the”
Masc / Fem
Neuter
(3rd declension) (3rd declension)
you
Gen
Dat
Acc
2
aujtovV
aujtou:
aujtw:/
aujtovn
he
his
to him
him
aujtoiv they
aujtw:n of them
aujtoi:V to them
aujtouvV them
F (1)
aujthv
aujth:V
aujth::/
aujthvn
N (2)
she
hers
to her
her
aujtaiv they
aujtw:n of them
aujtai:V to them
aujtavV them
aujtov
aujtou:
aujtw:/
aujtov
aujtav
aujtw:n
aujtoi:V
aujtav
it
its
to it
it
they
of them
to them
them