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• Create a list of labels that people place on you by looking at
you (i.e. athlete/jock, nerd, etc)
• Beside that list, write a list of labels that ppl could not see
about you
• What do these labels say about you?
• Society & its institutions serve to ensure everyone’s rights are
• Done in Canada through the Charter of Rights & Freedoms
• Demands that everyone is treated equally regardless of individual
differences or group affiliations
• Does this always occur?
• NO!
• Despite the Charter & laws, discrimination of all types exist
• Most discrimination begins with a stereotype
• Stereotypes highlight a specific behaviour that is observed, often in a
limited or infrequent form about a specific group
• Stereotypes may seem harmless but they often turn into
• Prejudice is not illegal but it is unethical
• Bad b/c it often leads to exclusion or hostility making certain
individuals/groups victims which leads to a loss in self-esteem
• Prejudices lead to discrimination which is illegal
Overt Discrimination
Systemic Discrimination
Intentional actions against an indy/group
b/c of a characteristic they possess
Subtle/unintentional acts against an
indy/group where consequences/outcomes
are not fully understood by those doing it
• Discrimination: the act of treating groups or individuals unfairly based on race,
gender, or other common characteristics
• Stereotype: an exaggerated view judgment made about a group or class of ppl
• Types of Discrimination
• Racism: erroneous judgment, assumptions, opinions or actions towards a
person/group, based on the belief that one race is superior to another
• Sexism: attitudes or behaviours based on predetermined ideas of sexual roles
• Classism: systemic or personal actions taken against a person/group according to
their socio-economic level, which leads to human needs being unmet
• Prejudice: an individual judgment about or active hostility towards another social
• Also – Ageism and Ableism – How do you think they discriminate?
Crayola has had numerous
discriminatory colour names
over the years including FLESH
which was later changed to
peach in 1962
Why is this discriminatory?
Similarly, Crayola also needed to
change the name of its INDIAN
RED crayon to Chestnut in 1999.
Can you believe a company was
still using a derogatory name like
that a little over a decade ago!
• In the face of
discrimination it is
important that everyone
becomes an upstander
• A person who takes action,
particularly when the easiest
or most acceptable course is
to do nothing, when he or
she believes something is
• Learned Theory
• Actions, behaviours & beliefs are learned during the process of
• Often children take on the views of their parents (or other agents) &
follow them blindly until their adolescent years (tend to abandon some
ideas in search of our own identity)
• Competition Theory
• Actions, behaviours & beliefs are enacted due to fear of competition b/w
a group that differs from your own
• CAN is multicultural hwr, its policies (historically) are prejudice against
visible minorities due to competition for land and/or economic profit
• Frustration-Aggression Theory
• Occurs when an individual feels frustrated & resents another group that they
perceive to be in a better state (ie. Financially) than themselves
• Frustration turns to aggression against “the others” who become scapegoats
• Scapegoats are a specific group of ppl who become the target of hatred
and/or blame for the situation of another group (usually the majority
• Ignorance Theory
• Occurs when an individual lacks personal or social experience w/ another
group & causes them to make incorrect assumptions
• Often these ppl refuse to learn about “others” & remain unaware of
how/why the “others” function the way they do
• It is the fear of unfamiliar cultural practices that guides discriminatory
behaviour (ethnocentricism is often a culprit!)