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How decisive was Spanish intervention in
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Plaque commemorating the liberation of Paris the bottom plaque reads «To the Spanish Republicans main component of the Dronne column»
International School of Toulouse (FR042)
Russel Tarr 27/6/12 17:01
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Candidate Number :
Word Count: 3963
1 Contents
Abstract – Page 3
Introduction – Page 4
Investigation- Page 5
Structure of investigation - page 6
Analysis of Sources – page 6
Analysis – Military – page 7
Analysis – Economy – page 9
Analysis – Covert Operations – page 10
Analysis – Different Interpretation – Page 12
Conclusion – Page 13
Bibliography – Page 14
2 Abstract
This essay investigates the question “How decisive was Spanish intervention in world war
This investigation makes use of a variety of sources: The first source is a book written by the
historian Evelyn Mesquida called “La Nueve: Los españoles que liberaron Paris” the book
describes the story of the ninth company of Leclerc’s armored division, composed solely of
republican Spanish soldiers. “La División azul: Sangre española en Rusia 1941-1945” by
Xavier Moreno Julia tells in detail the story of the Blue Division, formed of volunteers and
sent by Franco to help Hitler in his Russian campaign. “Españoles en la segunda guerra
mundial” by Luis reyes briefly describes all of the spanish soldiers involved in the war. Two
other books where used, one about the diplomacy between Hitler and Franco and the other
about the spy Garbo. This investigation also uses a number of websites.
The investigation is structured in the following manner, firstly the structure of the analysis is
briefly described, and then several sources are analyzed to be followed by the analysis of the
investigation divided into three sections: military, economy, covert operations and different
interpretation. Finally a conclusion to the investigation is approached and described.
The conclusions of this investigation is that the Spanish intervention cannot be considered to
be solely decisive for the outcome of the war, rather only decisive for certain factors and for
certain people, like for example the French which had their capital liberated by Spanish
3 Introduction
World war two has been studied many times; it is one of the most important events in the 20th
century. It has been clearly established that the two main belligerent sides were those of the
allies, composed of the Russians, British, Americans and French, and the axis, which included
Germany, Italy and Japan. Yet there were many other countries involved in the war, such as
the case of Spain, which was a non-belligerent country, yet participated actively in the
conflict, thus making it important to define the extent and the decisiveness of its participation.
Resolving the issue of the Spanish participation has still got a significant relevance today
since while the soldiers on both sides have all been recognized and have had memorials built
for them; there isn’t any which remembers those Spanish soldiers that died for either of the
two sides. Therefore if the Spanish did in fact result to be of a major determination in the
outcome in the war, they should be not only remembered but also rewarded as much as any of
the other soldiers of the other nations which were involved in the war. There is the special
case of one of the companies of soldiers which were promised that the allies would in fact
help them to deal with Franco if they provided their aid against the Germans, however when
they did so the allies let them down and never fulfilled such promise, all the while leaving the
soldiers to be forgotten.
4 Investigation.
Structure of the Investigation.
This investigation will firstly consider the ways in which the Spanish were decisive and ways
they weren’t decisive in terms of military, this section will therefore include all the military
actions done by the Spanish soldiers on both sides of the war. Following this the investigation
will consider the economic aid provided by the Spanish dictator Franco to the Germans and
the ways that this aid proved crucial for the war or whether it was not important at all. Next
consideration will be given to the aid in terms of covert operations both in Spain and outside
aided by the Spaniards and whether they seemed to be of any use at all to the outcome of the
Analysis of Sources.
Source 1
“La Nueve: Los españoles que liberaron paris.”1 Is a book which has certain values to a
historian studying this topic. These values come in terms of its origins, the writer Evelyn
Mesquida has become an expert in this specific unit after ten years spent “weaving the threads
of an infinite story never included in French history books”2. The purpose of this book is also
to inform by the use of interviews with the survivors themselves to create a “meticulous
reconstruction of the story which was never recognized of the Republicans who fought against
Nazism and liberated Paris.”3
Yet this source also has its share of limitations. In terms of origins, the book is based mostly
on interviews with the survivors, which although were first hand witnesses, were also very old
and might have left out certain details. In terms of its purpose, the writer herself admitted that
her goal was to have “France recognize that it owes some of its freedom to more than 200,000
Republicans ... France to also recover its historical memory”4 and there is therefore likely to
be certain bias to make the Spanish role seem greater than it really was.
Translation: « The Ninth: The Spaniards who liberated Paris. » Gonzalez Harbour, Berna (Date accessed: 30/7/2010)
ult_2/Tes “10 años a entrelazar los hilos de un relato infinito que jamás estuvo en los libros de historia
franceses” 3
Ibid « una meticulosa reconstrucción de la historia nunca reconocida de los republicanos que lucharon contra el nazismo y que liberaron París.» 4
Ibid « Mi objetivo es que Francia reconozca que debe una parte de su libertad a más de 200.000 republicanos ... que Francia también recupere su memoria histórica» 2
5 Source 2
"La División Azul - Sangre Española en Rusia 1941-1945"5 Xavier Moreno Juliá.
The values of this source in terms of its origins are that the historian has experience in
investigating the relationships between Germany and France, writing this source and another
book after that.6 In terms to its purpose, the book tries to inform of the sacrifice of the
volunteers in such division and as such includes a very large amount of facts and figures and
it is considered “currently the best work available on this subject.”7
Yet this source does also prove to have certain limitations. In terms of it’s origins, the
historian would have to find his information from pre-existing sources of the time and it
seems that “Information from Russian sources is nonexistent”8 meaning that the Russian
perspective on this subject isn’t presented in his book, which is a certain limitation since the
Russians were the ones the Blue Division fought against. In terms of it’s purpose the book
could have certain bias which makes it depict the Spanish soldiers as heroes or that they
didn’t support German policies but rather only wanted to fight communism, and thus
separating them from the horrors committed by the Nazis.
Source 3
“Franco and Hitler: Spain, Germany and World War II” Stanley G. Payne
In terms of its origins, Stanley G. Payne is a well established and specialized historian when it
comes to the study of Spain under the dictator Franco, writing an array of books revolving
around this subject.9 In terms of purpose, the author tried to solve the “the enigma of Spain's
Translation: “The Blue Division – Spanish Blood in Russia 1941-­‐1945” List of books by this author: • Xavier Moreno (2004) La División Azul. Sangre española en Rusia 1941-­‐1945. Critica. • Xavier Moreno (2007) Hitler y Franco. Planeta. 7
Nuñez Florenzio, Rafael (Date accessed: 28/8/2010) available at:­‐_sangre_espanola_en_Rusia_1941-­‐
1945 “hoy por hoy la mejor obra disponible sobre este asunto” 8
Ibid (28/8/2010) “la información de fuentes rusas brilla por su ausencia” 9
List of Books written by Stanley G. Payne in chronological order: •
Falange: A History of Spanish Fascism, 1961 Politics and the Military in Modern Spain, 1967 Franco's Spain, 1967 The Spanish Revolution, 1970 A History of Spain and Portugal, 1973 Basque Nationalism, 1975 La revolución y la guerra civil española, 1976 Fascism: Comparison and Definition, 1980 Spanish Catholicism: An Historical Overview, 1984 The Franco Regime 1936-­‐1975, 1988 Franco: El perfil de la historia, 1992 Spain's First Democracy: The Second Republic, 1931-­‐1936, 1993 6 unique position during the war”10 and to do so used information from the Fundacion Nacional
Francisco Franco to base his research.
Yet this source does prove to have certain limitations, the author has been accused of holding
“little affection for Franco, pointing out his prejudices, blunders, and opportunism”11 this
would mean that the source would have a certain bias to depict Franco worse than he probably
could have been. There is also the fact that he seems to have taken from mostly one place,
which is trying to “defend the Franco regime's historical record”12 meaning that he only
disposed of one point of view to base his work from (however it must be kept in mind that
this information was taken from the internet, so it might be incomplete and not fully
One of the main contributions by the Spanish in world war two was militarily, the republicans
which had fled from Spain at the end of the civil war towards France were put into
concentration camps or forced to join the French foreign legion, many then escaped to join the
Free French Forces under general de Gaulle believing that after the war in France the allies
would free Spain from Franco’s control, thus eventually constituting at least half of de
Gaulle’s army.13 The communists which had been living in the republican Spain had been
rescued by the Soviets; yet again these believed that the Soviets would sooner or later go to
Spain to provide a communist liberation to the country. On the axis’ side a division of
volunteers was set up to “repay the civil war tribute in blood”14 and thus the Blue Division
was created.
A clear example of how the Spanish were decisive can be seen in the company “La Nueve” of
the Second armored Division under General Leclerc, The Spanish soldiers of this company
were the first troops to land of all of the Free French forces, they were also the first to enter
the city of Paris on the evening of the 24th of august and liberated the most important places of
the capital, meeting with the resistance committee in the city council on the first day, and in
A History of Fascism 1914-­‐1945, 1996 El primer franquismo, 1939-­‐1959: Los años de la autarquía, 1998 Fascism in Spain 1923-­‐1977, 2000 The Spanish Civil War, the Soviet Union, and Communism 1931-­‐1939, 2004 The Collapse of the Spanish Republic, 1933-­‐1936, 2006 Franco and Hitler: Spain, Germany, and World War II, 2008 •
Unknown, (Date Accessed: 28/8/2010) available at:­‐G-­‐
Payne/Franco-­‐and-­‐Hitler-­‐Spain-­‐Germany-­‐and-­‐World/0300122829.html 11
Nofi, A.A, (Date Accessed: 28/8/2010) available at: (28/8/2010) 12
Viñas, Angel Date Accessed: 28/8/2010) Available at: 13
(1990), Luis Reyes, Españoles pg 20 14
(2008, Stanley G. Payne, pg 147 ) 10
7 addition conquered the hotel Meurice where the general Von Choltitz had set up his command
post, thus proving the trust that General Leclerc had upon these men, which were also sent as
the vanguard of the assault on Strasbourg. the 13th Demi-Brigade of the French Foreign
legion was composed of 2000 men, of which 1000 were Spanish15, the Battle of Bir Hakeim
proves perfect evidence of the decisiveness of the Spanish involvement. On the 27th of May,
Italian tanks broke the exterior perimeter and entered Bir Hakeim, here they were one by one
persecuted by the Legionnaires, especially by the Spanish which had the most experience due
to their time fighting tanks in the Spanish civil war, in some cases using improvised Molotov
cocktails and shouting “Like in Madrid comrades!”16 In the Eastern front on the side of the
Soviets, there was the notable participation of the 4th company of the 1st special motorized
brigade, composed exclusively of Spanish officers and soldiers. During the assault on
Moscow by the Germans, they were ordered to defend the Kremlin itself by Stalin, and their
mere presence (mostly due to the parity to the International Brigades) lifted the morale of the
However this evidence does not prove that the Spanish were extremely decisive on the allied
side. Even though they landed the first of all the Free French Forces, they were not on the
first of the allied landings, instead landing several weeks after D-Day on the first of august
1944. Notably, although the Nueve did liberate Paris, by the time they had arrived at the
capital a resurrection had already started in the streets of Paris against the Germans, by the
resistance. The liberation wasn’t an important objective militarily wise for the allies neither,
since the Americans had planned to simply surround the city and blockade it into submission;
it was rather a local political issue for the French. To add to this, the 13DB’s first intended
participation in the war was in Finland, however due to the fact the Brigade needed to be
trained to be able to fight in the winter conditions, they arrived too late, and the soviets and
Finnish signed an armistice. It was then to be deployed into Norway to capture the
Norwegian ports, especially Narvik, before the Germans did so. Once again they arrived late
and the Germans beat them to it by invading on 9th April 1940. Even though the brigade
spearheaded the assault and capture of Narvik, it was futile since it was ordered to withdraw
immediately after and the last troops left Narvik on the 7th June 1940.
There was also Spanish aid to the Nazis during the Second World War, in the form of the
Blue Division, fighting in the eastern front. The first front assigned to the blue division was of
40 kilometers along the river Voljov. On the 19th October a small group of 36 men managed
to cross the River Voljov, the following day, the rest of the battalion crossed and advanced
without much resistance towards the town of Smeisko. On the 21st the Spanish controlled an
area of 3km wide and 10km large over the other side of the river.18 The Spanish continued
advancing and on the 22nd they occupied Sitno, by which time they had received 48 casualties
(1990), Luis Reyes, Españoles (1990) Luis Reyes , Españoles en la segunda guerra mundial, « Como en Madrid camaradas !” 17
(1990), Luis Reyes, Españoles 18
(2005) Xavier Moreno julia, La Division azul : Sangre española en Rusia 1941-­‐1945, 16
8 and inflicted 247 on the soviet troops19. By November the blue division arrived at the town of
Possad, further into the Russian territory and impressing the Germans which told of the
accomplishments of the division in the Völkisher Beobachter20. On the 27th of December the
Russians attacked the “intermediate position”, one platoon was left holding the position faced
against three Russian platoons. Reinforcements were sent, but the position was overrun, yet
the reinforcements then underwent a vicious counter attack, re-capturing the said position.
The Russians suffered, due to the defense and the counter attack, around 1080 casualties, no
prisoners were made21. This division was essential for the Germans, to such extreme that
although it’s numbers dwindling, General Ernst Busch refused to let go of “his Spanische
Yet, the division wasn’t given any of the vehicles by the Germans, and thus had to march by
foot 900 kilometers to reach the front. Thus by the end of the trip 3013 men were incapable of
fighting, and there were eleven deaths. Of the previously mentioned general Busch it is
important to not that at the time when he refused to put the Blue Division away from the front,
the nearest German division was in worse conditions, thus removing the Division effectively
meant the destruction of the Germans. The Blue Division was dissolved on the 12th October
by the OKW (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht) after two years on the Russian front, being
replaced by the Blue Legion, a smaller unit which in fact saw little action compared to the
Blue Division. Finally an important argument which can prove that the Spanish were not
decisive is seen with the few numbers that participated, the Spanish military casualties during
world war two were of 12,000 which seems like a tiny number when compared to a country
which had been involved in the war since the beginning like Britain which tolled to 326,00023.
One of the reasons why Hitler joined the civil war on the side of Franco was that he needed
very important natural minerals from Spain, he stroke a deal with Franco with the Montana
project where, Hitler was supposed to receive 75% of the natural minerals produced by Spain.
However Franco never really accomplished his part, since he never sent any of the minerals to
An agreement was reached on 22nd of December 1939, providing for trade methods, while
trying to maintain a balance between the two countries. There had been no agreement for the
arrangement of the debt which the Spanish state had towards the Germans for their aid during
the civil war, however an secret protocol signed on the 28 of February 1941 recognized a debt
of 372 million Reich marks. The Wagner-Aktion scheme planned to import 60 million
pesetas worth of Spanish raw materials. In 1941 imports from Germany amounted to 52
million pesetas while the exports totaled 161 million.
ibid Ibid Pg 164 (2005) Xavier Moreno julia, La Division azul : Sangre española en Rusia 1941-­‐1945, 22
ibid 23
Unknown, (Date accessed: 30/8/2010) 20
9 However the economic aid provided by the Spanish, although extensive, was not much greater
than that of other non-belligerent or neutral countries, with examples such as Sweden and
Switzerland, with the Swiss economy providing financial aid and industrial production to
Germany. The Spanish economy had been gravely damaged due to the civil war, the debt
which the Spanish then had with the Nazis was actually not completely paid since no
agreement was reached to do so until 1944, fact which the Spanish actually used to prevent
the Germans from taking more resources using their mining companies. The Spanish actually
spent more time asking for armaments which the Germans desperately needed themselves.
Covert Operations
Went to the British embassy to offer his services as a spy but they denied him, instead he went
to the Germans and got accepted. He moved to Lisbon, were with the use of a map and
newsreels. He claimed to be travelling around Britain and use a British Railway guide to
calculate his expenses. Later he approached the British again, this time being accepted, he was
moved to London in 1942 working for the XX committee, he pretended to have created a
large group of agents throughout Britain.24 Sometimes he had to explain why some of his
agents had failed to report on certain occasions, such as his fictitious agent which “died” from
a disease, Garbo’s misinformation was part of Operation fortitude, deceiving the Germans
that the invasion of France would happen at pas de Calais. He Made the Germans believe that
the Americans had in fact 50% more troops in the United kingdom that they in fact had, by
creating the fictitious “FUSAG (First United Stated Army Group)”25. On the weeks preceding
D-day he sent reports to the Germans based on information collected by his fictitious agents,
managing to make it seem that the FUSAG was at the heart of all the allied operations. He
managed convince the Germans that the main assault was still in Calais even after D-day, thus
resulting in the Germans not sending reinforcements to the troops stationed in Normandy for
fear of another landing further north. Not all of the espionage made by the Spanish was for the
allies neither, Germany had set up a network of espionage in the neutral countries, the KOSpanien was the largest one of them all, composed of 220 agents, mostly Spanish.26 The focus
of the organization was the espionage of Gibraltar, one of the German’s most important
military objectives in the Mediterranean. The Japanese too used the Spanish to recollect
information, since after the attack on Pearl Harbor they had no intelligence about the
Nonetheless, Garbo although, being the main man in the operation, didn’t work alone, having
a large amount of MI5 supervisors and co-agents which wrote and directed what Garbo had to
re-transmit to the Germans. Most of the important decisions weren’t taken by Garbo himself
but rather by the deception planners at the Supreme headquarters allied expeditionary force
Mark Seaman (2004), Garbo: The Spy who save D-­‐Day. The National Archives. Summary of the Garbo Case 1941-­‐1945 Tomàs Harris 26
ibid 25
10 (SHAEF).27 Garbo too was very fortunate due to the incompetence of the Abwehr in Madrid,
were for example the radio operator turned off the radio the night before OPERATION
OVERLORD came into place, where Garbo was supposed to warn the Nazis of the invasion
to keep his cover. Also the fact that the Germans did not detect his dubious amount of
information as his supervisor said “it is doubt whether, in reality, one man could have done all
the work…attributed to Garbo.”28 Although the Spanish network set up by the Germans was
extensive, it was also highly ineffective. The observation posts which over-watched Gibraltar
were quickly closed down due to pressure by the allies, and the information sent to the
Japanese was usually of very bad quality, some even pure creation of the agents.
Probably one of the most important methods of Spain’s collaboration was pro-Nazi
propaganda in Spain itself. The Grosse plan, thought of by the Germans (Stohrer and his Press
attaché), and received the support of Franco and his minister of interior. The plan was made to
enhance German propaganda and restrict that of the allies. Although originally sketched by
the Germans, the plan was to be carried out almost exclusively by Spanish personnel. The
structure of the plan is as follows:
“Group A: Composed of around 500,000 pro German Spanish, this group would be
responsible of receiving the propaganda
Group B: formed within the Spanish postal system, goal of facilitating the entry of German
+intercepting the flow of allied propaganda
Group C: Set up amongst the FET (Falange Española Tradicionalista) and facilitated the
distribution of propaganda, Identifying allied propaganda and giving details about its
channels, sources and recipients.
Group D: Set up in the ‘Direccion General de Seguridad’, using Spanish police to gather
information about allied propaganda and use means, official and unofficial, to battle it.
Group E: least important, composed of people which had been in republican prisons during
the civil war.”29
However, The Spanish did not provide many funds themselves, forcing the Germans to collect
money from German businesses in Spain. The Spanish governments itself provided a decree
which restricted the flow of foreign propaganda in Spain; the only allowed to be sent were
official bulletins, and these to government officials only. Spain was heavily controlled by the
Allied imports from overseas, meaning that in order not to lose those vital imports, the
propaganda had to be severely toned down and the pro-German news had to be limited.
Spanish ships were used for the transport of German Diplomatic correspondence and
intelligence was transported across the Atlantic. The Germans established an enterprise in
ibid Mark Seaman (2004), Garbo: The Spy who save D-­‐Day. The National Archives. 29
Stanley G. Payne (2008). Franco and Hitler. New Haven: Yale University Press, (ISBN: 0300122829). 28
11 Spain called “Compañia Maritima de Transportes”30, recorded as a Spanish firm which
received the authorization of the Falangist minister of industry and commerce, Demetrio
Carceller to use 5 ships to engage in trade in the western Mediterranean. These ships would
transport supplies to the German forces using the Spanish flag to protect them from the British
interdiction, moving around 125, 000 tons of supplies to North Africa within a period of ten
months during 1941-42.31
On the other hand, the British soon noticed these operations taking action to counter them.
They prohibited any ships of more than 500 tons to sail in the Mediterranean without British
permission and the Spanish government was ordered to tell Spanish ships leaving Spain to
return immediately. Further more, the British bought as much Spanish shipping as it was
possible to them and by 1942 they had used up to 3£ million to do so, the result being that by
1942 resupply of German troops became increasingly desperate.32
Different Interpretation
Until now in this investigation I have analyzed ways that Spain could or could not have been
decisive in three different areas, military aid, economic aid and covert operations. Yet a
different interpretation of this question could be that, maybe Spain’s greatest input to this war,
was in fact contributing to the outbreak of it.
The Spanish civil war can be considered as the dressing rehearsal for world war two. Spain
was at the time a republic, with close links with the soviets. When Franco started his
rebellion, Spain quickly became a both a political and military between fascism and
democracy. Hitler quickly sided with Franco and provided aid for him; his motives were
economic and military. As mentioned earlier in this investigation, under Montana project
Franco was to provide 75% of natural minerals to Hitler if he won the war. Hitler also used
this as a training ground and showcase of the German military force. With the infamous
bombing of Guernica he sent a clear message to the democracies, the message being that he
could strike anywhere in their country. Mussolini provided help to Franco too, effectively
driving Italy closer to Germany, breaking the stresa pact; this was then acknowledged by the
creation of the rome-berlin axis in 1936 and strengthened further by the anti-comintern pact of
1937 and the pact of steel two years later.
Yet while the fascist countries became involved and grew closer together, the democracies
decided to try to maintain themselves out of it. Signing the Non-Intervention agreement in
1936 (Germany and Italy signed too but ignored it). The republic asked for help but the only
official help it received came in form or Russian military advisors. However although the
governments forbid to help the Spanish Republic in the civil war, many civilians joined the
International brigades to fight for democracy.
ibid ibid 32
ibid 31
12 Conclusion
This investigation has sought to answer the question how decisive was Spanish intervention in
world war two? The evidence and arguments considered has led me to the conclusion that the
answer to this question is that they were not that decisive in terms of the whole of the world
war, but rather decisive in small and localized victories.
When looking at the individual factors, militarily the Spanish intervention was only important
in a very tiny scale, the “Nueve” although an important asset for the liberation of Paris was of
not any more importance than the rest of the companies under Leclerc’s command. Most
importantly the factor in military intervention which makes it seem as the Spaniards weren’t
that decisive was the few numbers. Economically as seen in this investigation although Spain
did provide some aid to Germany compared to other countries this contribution yet again
becomes too small to prove significant. In the covert operation section it is demonstrated that
the help provided by Garbo was of great aid, allowing the Normandy disembarking to occur,
but he was aided and guided by members of the MI5, therefore proved only to be a tool to
trick the Germans rather than the mastermind of the operation.
Nevertheless, my studies demonstrate that there are clearly problems with reaching a final
answer to the question because the source material is very scarce, there is very few
recollections of the Spanish intervention, most likely because she wasn’t an official
belligerent in the war, therefore no one really expects there to have been any intervention on
their part. First hand stories of the implication of Spaniards in the war are very scarce, since
the veterans decided to keep quiet about their stories due to the fact they felt betrayed. This
question can also have multiple different answers, although maybe economically there wasn’t
a big difference made, in terms of military aid and in the case of the French side the Spanish
aid proved to be invaluable.
13 Bibliography
Mesquida, Evelyn (2010), La Nueve: Los españoles que liberaron Paris. Zeta.
Moreno julia, Xavier (2005), La División azul: Sangre española en Rusia 1941-1945.
Payne, Stanley G. (2008). Franco and Hitler. New Haven: Yale University Press,
(ISBN: 0300122829).
Reyes, Luis (1990), Españoles en la segunda guerra mundial. Aldaba Militaria.
Seaman, Mark (2004), Garbo: The Spy who save D-Day. The National Archives.
Gonzalez Harbour, Berna (Date accessed: 30/7/2010)
/20090713elpepiult_2/Tes •
Nofi, A.A, (Date Accessed: 28/8/2010) available at: (28/8/2010) •
Nuñez Florenzio, Rafael (Date accessed: 28/8/2010) available at:­‐
Payne/Franco-­‐and-­‐Hitler-­‐Spain-­‐Germany-­‐and-­‐World/0300122829.html •
Unknown, (Date Accessed: 28/8/2010) available at:­‐G-­‐Payne/Franco-­‐and-­‐Hitler-­‐Spain-­‐Germany-­‐
and-­‐World/0300122829.html Unknown, (Date accessed: 30/8/2010)
Viñas, Angel Date Accessed: 28/8/2010) Available at: Other:
14 •
Harris, Tomàs Summary of the Garbo Case 1941-1945 (Official report)