* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
What events and technological advances paved the way for European exploration? New Ideas and Nations • • The Crusades brought Western Europe into contact with the Middle East. European merchants knew they could make a fortune selling goods from Asia, and their interest grew after Marco Polo returned from China. Technology’s Impact • The printing press • More accurate maps • Instruments, such as the astrolabe • Europeans also acquired the magnetic compass • Better ships African Kingdoms • Ghana-lasted around 700 years, prospered from taxes placed on trade. • Mali-lasted around 250 years, prospered from agriculture and gold mines. • Songhai-lasted around 100 years, built a navy to control Niger river Why did Spain and Portugal want to find a sea route to Asia? Seeking New Trade Routes • Many hoped to find a faster or a more direct way to gold, spices and trade. • Prince Henry the Navigator-created a “school of navigation” to share knowledge of travel with Portuguese sailors. • Bartholomeu Diaz-attempted to sail around southern Africa to India, made it about ½ way • Vasco da Gama-first successful voyage from Portugal to India. Columbus Crosses the Atlantic • Leif Erickson-sailed hundreds of years before Columbus and landed in North America • Christopher Columbus said west to reach India and “found” North America, Spain sponsored his trip • This discovery led to Spanish settlements in the Americas. • Amerigo Vespucci-sailed and concluded America was not part of Asia, America named after him • Ferdinand Magellan-sailed for Spain , first ship to circumnavigate the globe How did Spain’s conquests affect the economic and social development of the Americas? Explorers and Conquests • Explorers known as conquistadors received grants from Spanish rulers to explore and establish settlements in the Americas. • Spain hoped to find gold or other valuable resources • Hernando Cortes and Spanish troops fought against the powerful Aztecs taking their capital in 1521 • Francisco Pizarro and Spanish troops fought against the powerful Inca taking their empire over shortly after the execution of their leader. • Spain had three advantages • Guns/cannons (better weapons than their opponent) • Animals (never before seen in the Americas, horses & dogs) • Diseases (groups in America were not immune or safe from Spanish disease) Spanish Rule • Attempted to convert Native Americans to Christianity • Spain had a hierarchy or social classes • PeninsularescreolesmestizosNative AmericansAfrican Americans • Conquistadors soon demanded taxes and labor from Natives, basically making them slaves. Why did European nations establish colonies in North America? A Divided Church • German priest Martin Luther led people away from Catholicism. • John Calvin also broke away from the Catholic Church and had many Calvinists. • Even England’s King Henry VIII left the Catholic church and was recognized as the leader of the Church of England • In North American, both the Spanish and French competed to spread their religion Economic Rivalry • Along with religion, wealth was a factor in exploration • Mercantilism is an idea that a country was as valuable and powerful as they were wealthy. • The more wealth you gained, the more powerful your country became. • The Columbian exchange opened up new plants, animals and diseases that greatly impacted life on both sides of the Atlantic. • Many countries looked for an all water route across the Americas, but there is no such Northwest Passage. • John Cabot, Giovanni da Verrazano, Jacques Cartier and Henry Hudson all made unsuccessful trips. • France set up trading posts and traded fur in present day Canada • The Dutch (Netherlands) set up a colony in present day New York.