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Transcript
What events and technological advances paved the way for European
exploration?
New Ideas and Nations
•
•
The Crusades brought Western Europe into contact with the Middle East.
European merchants knew they could make a fortune selling goods from
Asia, and their interest grew after Marco Polo returned from China.
Technology’s Impact
• The printing press
• More accurate maps
• Instruments, such as the astrolabe
• Europeans also acquired the magnetic compass
• Better ships
African Kingdoms
• Ghana-lasted around 700 years, prospered from taxes placed on trade.
• Mali-lasted around 250 years, prospered from agriculture and gold mines.
• Songhai-lasted around 100 years, built a navy to control Niger river
Why did Spain and Portugal want to find a sea route to Asia?
Seeking New Trade Routes
• Many hoped to find a faster or a more direct way to gold, spices and trade.
• Prince Henry the Navigator-created a “school of navigation” to share
knowledge of travel with Portuguese sailors.
• Bartholomeu Diaz-attempted to sail around southern Africa to India, made it
about ½ way
• Vasco da Gama-first successful voyage from Portugal to India.
Columbus Crosses the Atlantic
• Leif Erickson-sailed hundreds of years before Columbus and landed in North
America
• Christopher Columbus said west to reach India and “found” North America,
Spain sponsored his trip
• This discovery led to Spanish settlements in the Americas.
• Amerigo Vespucci-sailed and concluded America was not part of Asia,
America named after him
• Ferdinand Magellan-sailed for Spain , first ship to circumnavigate the globe
How did Spain’s conquests affect the economic and social development of the
Americas?
Explorers and Conquests
• Explorers known as conquistadors received grants from Spanish rulers to
explore and establish settlements in the Americas.
• Spain hoped to find gold or other valuable resources
• Hernando Cortes and Spanish troops fought against the powerful Aztecs
taking their capital in 1521
• Francisco Pizarro and Spanish troops fought against the powerful Inca taking
their empire over shortly after the execution of their leader.
• Spain had three advantages
• Guns/cannons (better weapons than their opponent)
• Animals (never before seen in the Americas, horses & dogs)
• Diseases (groups in America were not immune or safe from Spanish
disease)
Spanish Rule
• Attempted to convert Native Americans to Christianity
• Spain had a hierarchy or social classes
• PeninsularescreolesmestizosNative AmericansAfrican
Americans
• Conquistadors soon demanded taxes and labor from Natives, basically
making them slaves.
Why did European nations establish colonies in North America?
A Divided Church
• German priest Martin Luther led people away from Catholicism.
• John Calvin also broke away from the Catholic Church and had many
Calvinists.
• Even England’s King Henry VIII left the Catholic church and was recognized
as the leader of the Church of England
• In North American, both the Spanish and French competed to spread their
religion
Economic Rivalry
• Along with religion, wealth was a factor in exploration
• Mercantilism is an idea that a country was as valuable and powerful as they
were wealthy.
• The more wealth you gained, the more powerful your country became.
• The Columbian exchange opened up new plants, animals and diseases that
greatly impacted life on both sides of the Atlantic.
• Many countries looked for an all water route across the Americas, but there
is no such Northwest Passage.
• John Cabot, Giovanni da Verrazano, Jacques Cartier and Henry Hudson
all made unsuccessful trips.
• France set up trading posts and traded fur in present day Canada
• The Dutch (Netherlands) set up a colony in present day New York.