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What events and technological advances paved the way for European exploration? New Ideas and Nations • • The Crusades brought Western Europe into contact with the Middle East. European merchants knew they could make a fortune selling goods from Asia, and their interest grew after Marco Polo returned from China. Technology’s Impact • The printing press • More accurate maps • Instruments, such as the astrolabe • Europeans also acquired the magnetic compass • Better ships African Kingdoms • Ghana-lasted around 700 years, prospered from taxes placed on trade. • Mali-lasted around 250 years, prospered from agriculture and gold mines. • Songhai-lasted around 100 years, built a navy to control Niger river Why did Spain and Portugal want to find a sea route to Asia? Seeking New Trade Routes • Many hoped to find a faster or a more direct way to gold, spices and trade. • Prince Henry the Navigator-created a “school of navigation” to share knowledge of travel with Portuguese sailors. • Bartholomeu Diaz-attempted to sail around southern Africa to India, made it about ½ way • Vasco da Gama-first successful voyage from Portugal to India. Columbus Crosses the Atlantic • Leif Erickson-sailed hundreds of years before Columbus and landed in North America • Christopher Columbus said west to reach India and “found” North America, Spain sponsored his trip • This discovery led to Spanish settlements in the Americas. • Amerigo Vespucci-sailed and concluded America was not part of Asia, America named after him • Ferdinand Magellan-sailed for Spain , first ship to circumnavigate the globe How did Spain’s conquests affect the economic and social development of the Americas? Explorers and Conquests • Explorers known as conquistadors received grants from Spanish rulers to explore and establish settlements in the Americas. • Spain hoped to find gold or other valuable resources • Hernando Cortes and Spanish troops fought against the powerful Aztecs taking their capital in 1521 • Francisco Pizarro and Spanish troops fought against the powerful Inca taking their empire over shortly after the execution of their leader. • Spain had three advantages • Guns/cannons (better weapons than their opponent) • Animals (never before seen in the Americas, horses & dogs) • Diseases (groups in America were not immune or safe from Spanish disease) Spanish Rule • Attempted to convert Native Americans to Christianity • Spain had a hierarchy or social classes • PeninsularescreolesmestizosNative AmericansAfrican Americans • Conquistadors soon demanded taxes and labor from Natives, basically making them slaves. Why did European nations establish colonies in North America? A Divided Church • German priest Martin Luther led people away from Catholicism. • John Calvin also broke away from the Catholic Church and had many Calvinists. • Even England’s King Henry VIII left the Catholic church and was recognized as the leader of the Church of England • In North American, both the Spanish and French competed to spread their religion Economic Rivalry • Along with religion, wealth was a factor in exploration • Mercantilism is an idea that a country was as valuable and powerful as they were wealthy. • The more wealth you gained, the more powerful your country became. • The Columbian exchange opened up new plants, animals and diseases that greatly impacted life on both sides of the Atlantic. • Many countries looked for an all water route across the Americas, but there is no such Northwest Passage. • John Cabot, Giovanni da Verrazano, Jacques Cartier and Henry Hudson all made unsuccessful trips. • France set up trading posts and traded fur in present day Canada • The Dutch (Netherlands) set up a colony in present day New York.