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Transcript
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS
1. What factors led nations to explore at this time?
• Economic
• Political
• Religious
• Cultural
• Technological
2. Which nations/explorers played key roles in exploration?
3. How did this exploration impact the non-European native
populations where the Europeans explored?
4. How did the world change as a result of the Age of
Exploration?
AGE
OF
EXPLORATION
SPANISH CONQUESTS IN THE
AMERICAS
I. SPAIN GETS INVOLVED
A. Columbus’s “Discovery”
1. convinces Spanish monarchs to finance his
“sail west to go east” scheme
2. 1st voyage reaches Caribbean island he
believes is the East Indies (Oct. 12, 1492)
Columbus first voyage
3. Makes 4 voyages before death in 1506; gives
Spain its foothold in what Amerigo Vespucci
recognizes as a “New World”
Columbus later voyages
Treaty of Tordesillas
B. Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
1. Pope draws imaginary line of demarcation
dividing the world into 2 halves
Portugal – all lands east
Spain - all lands west
C. Voyage of Magellan
1. 1519 – 5 ship expedition sets sail to find
southwestern passage to Asia
2. Rounded southern tip of So. America
and into the Pacific
3. Proceeds on to the Philippines & claims these
islands for Spain (Magellan killed there)
4. Surviving crew of 17make it back to Spain –
1522 -- 1st to circumnavigate globe
II. SPAIN BUILDS AN EMPIRE
Cortez / Pizarro
A. The Conquistadors in Latin America
1. 1519- Hernan Cortes conquers the
Aztec Empire of Mexico
2. 1532- Francisco Pizarro follows suit by
defeating the Inca Empire of Peru
B. Spanish Rule
1. Two major goals:
1) acquire wealth;
2) convert natives to Christianity
2. Way to accomplish this:
a) live among the natives  Mestizo culture
b) est. the encomienda system  feudal-type
system in which Indian provides the labor
(Peon)
C. Move Into North America
1. Conquistadors moved northward
seeking wealth and power
2. Ponce de Leon in Florida (1513)
Ponce de Leon
3. Hernando de Soto – southeastern U.S. along
the Miss River (SC, GA, AL, MISS, TX,…)
4. Francisco Coronado – southwestern U.S.
(including the Grand Canyon)
5. By 1600, Spain’s empire stretches from
So. California well into So. America.
Coronado 4:22
IV. OPPOSITION TO SPANISH RULE
A. Christian missionaries
1. begin protesting Spanish treatment of Indians
2. Bartolome de Las Casas- harshest critic
B. Native Resistance
1. Resistance tried occasionally but not effective
too scattered and unorganized
lacked technology in weaponry
2. Indian population declined rapidly after 1500
Abuse and mistreatment
Disease
3. Pointed to a new source of labor for this New
World frontier… the African