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SBI3U Evolution Unit Review
History of Earth & Evolution
Big Bang, basic organic molecules,
What was the early Earth like? How long did these
Miller-Urey apparatus, thermal
conditions last? Which factors were needed for early life &
protenoid, simple & complex carbon- where did they come from? How did the Miller-Urey
based molecules, hydrothermal vent, experiment work? What does the Lost City teach us about
geothermal energy, solar energy,
early Earth? How were protective capsules & membranes
phospholipid, liposome, RNA,
formed? Why was RNA used as a reproductive molecule
ribozymes, chemoautotrophic,
instead of DNA? How did early life cope with: strong UV light
desiccation, mass extinction, climate (no ozone), getting energy, extreme temperatures &
change, glaciation, continental drift,
desiccation? How did life evolve? – the general timeline for
cladogram, phylogeny, morphology, early evolution from the first prokaryotes to the first primates.
primitive characteristics, derived
What caused the various mass extinctions, what went
characteristics, shared derived
extinct and when did they happen? How do you make a
characteristics, outgroup
cladogram? How do you read a cladogram?
What do I need to study in this section? Questions I have are…
Evidence for Evolution
Fossil, body fossil, unaltered remains,
What is a fossil and how are they formed? What are
encrustations, amber entombment, resin,
the different fossil types- how are they formed and
refrigeration, altered remains, lithification,
what can we learn from them? How do we date
permineralization, replacement,
fossils: indirect vs. direct fossil dating. How do we find
recrystalization, carbonization, trace fossils, the relative age of a series of fossils? How do we
stride, gastrolith, coprolite, erosion, radiodate volcanic ash using radiometric dating (isotope
isotope, half life, parental, daughter, Fossil decay)? How is artificial selection similar to & different
Patterns, Homologous structures,
than natural selection? What are the assumptions &
embryonic structures, vestigial features,
inferences of Darwinian evolution by natural
artificial selection, macroevolution,
selection? What is the difference between macro &
microevolution, species, common ancestor microevolution? The giraffe example.
What do I need to study in this section? Questions I have are…
History of Evolutionary Theory & Theorists
Catastrophism, Actualism,
Before the discovery of fossils what was the current theory of
erosion, Uniformatism,
evolution? What did Buffon & Erasamus Darwin theorize? What did
Galapagos Islands,
Lamarck theorize? Who was Charles Darwin? Where did his 5-year
Galapagos Mockingbirds &
trip on the HMS Beagle take him? What did Darwin see? What did
Finches, Giant Tortoises,
Darwin do when he returned to England? Who was Alfred Russell
Woodpecker Finch, Wallace’s Wallace? Where did he go to study life and evolution? What did
Line, Wallacea, On the Origin Darwin & Wallace conclude? How were their theories the same?
of Species, Thomas Huxley
How were they different?
What do I need to study in this section? Questions I have are…
Mechanisms of Evolution
Population, allele, genetic drift, bottleneck
Why do we say that evolution happens with
effect, founder effect, gene flow, mutation,
populations and not individuals? How do alleles
single base change, addition, deletion, TATA
become more or less common in a population?
promoter, duplication, trait, mean, range,
Why is mutation not “random”? What are some
stabilizing selection, directional selection,
possible types of mutations…are some more
disruptive selection, sexual selection, facial
beneficial or detrimental than others? How are
symmetry, selection by female & male,
alleles selected for or against? What impact does
isolating mechanism, prezygotic mechanisms, this have on the population? How do averages
postzygotic mechanisms, ecological isolation,
influence sexual selection, why is being “average”
temporal isolation, behavioural isolation,
good? Why is having high hormone levels
mechanical isolation, gametic isolation, zygotic beneficial in mate selection? Why have we
mortality, hybrid inviability, hybrid infertility,
evolved to find certain traits attractive? How does
speciation, allotpatric speciation, sympatric
isolation affect evolution? How are different
speciation, divergent evolution, convergent
species formed? How does natural selection
evolution, placental mammals, marsupials,
happen (be specific)? How fast does evolution
natural selection, theory of gradualism,
transitional form, theory of punctuated
What do I need to study in this section? Questions I have are…
Hominid Evolution
Bonobo, Chimpanzee, Gorilla, Sagittal
How did the habitat changes in Africa affect primate
crest, Sahelanthropus tchadensis,
evolution? Under which conditions did our ancestors
Ardipithecus ramidus, Australopithecus evolve? What did they eat as herbivores? As carnivores?
anamensis, Australopithecus
What challenges did our ancestors face to survive and
anamensis, Australopithecus afarensis, find food? How did we overcome these problems? How
Australopithecus africanus,
are our bones different from those of gorillas and
Paranthropus, Homo habilis, Homo
chimpanzees? What are the overall characteristics of the
erectus, Homo neanderthalis, Homo
difference species of hominids? What is the difference
sapiens idaltu, Homo sapiens sapiens
between homo sapiens sapiens & homo sapiens idaltu?
What are some overall trends in hominid evolution? What
are the three major groups of hominids?