SBI3U Evolution Unit Review History of Earth & Evolution Terms: Concepts: Big Bang, basic organic molecules, What was the early Earth like? How long did these Miller-Urey apparatus, thermal conditions last? Which factors were needed for early life & protenoid, simple & complex carbon- where did they come from? How did the Miller-Urey based molecules, hydrothermal vent, experiment work? What does the Lost City teach us about geothermal energy, solar energy, early Earth? How were protective capsules & membranes phospholipid, liposome, RNA, formed? Why was RNA used as a reproductive molecule ribozymes, chemoautotrophic, instead of DNA? How did early life cope with: strong UV light desiccation, mass extinction, climate (no ozone), getting energy, extreme temperatures & change, glaciation, continental drift, desiccation? How did life evolve? – the general timeline for cladogram, phylogeny, morphology, early evolution from the first prokaryotes to the first primates. primitive characteristics, derived What caused the various mass extinctions, what went characteristics, shared derived extinct and when did they happen? How do you make a characteristics, outgroup cladogram? How do you read a cladogram? What do I need to study in this section? Questions I have are… Evidence for Evolution Terms: Concepts: Fossil, body fossil, unaltered remains, What is a fossil and how are they formed? What are encrustations, amber entombment, resin, the different fossil types- how are they formed and refrigeration, altered remains, lithification, what can we learn from them? How do we date permineralization, replacement, fossils: indirect vs. direct fossil dating. How do we find recrystalization, carbonization, trace fossils, the relative age of a series of fossils? How do we stride, gastrolith, coprolite, erosion, radiodate volcanic ash using radiometric dating (isotope isotope, half life, parental, daughter, Fossil decay)? How is artificial selection similar to & different Patterns, Homologous structures, than natural selection? What are the assumptions & embryonic structures, vestigial features, inferences of Darwinian evolution by natural artificial selection, macroevolution, selection? What is the difference between macro & microevolution, species, common ancestor microevolution? The giraffe example. What do I need to study in this section? Questions I have are… History of Evolutionary Theory & Theorists Terms: Concepts: Catastrophism, Actualism, Before the discovery of fossils what was the current theory of erosion, Uniformatism, evolution? What did Buffon & Erasamus Darwin theorize? What did Galapagos Islands, Lamarck theorize? Who was Charles Darwin? Where did his 5-year Galapagos Mockingbirds & trip on the HMS Beagle take him? What did Darwin see? What did Finches, Giant Tortoises, Darwin do when he returned to England? Who was Alfred Russell Woodpecker Finch, Wallace’s Wallace? Where did he go to study life and evolution? What did Line, Wallacea, On the Origin Darwin & Wallace conclude? How were their theories the same? of Species, Thomas Huxley How were they different? What do I need to study in this section? Questions I have are… Mechanisms of Evolution Terms: Concepts: Population, allele, genetic drift, bottleneck Why do we say that evolution happens with effect, founder effect, gene flow, mutation, populations and not individuals? How do alleles single base change, addition, deletion, TATA become more or less common in a population? promoter, duplication, trait, mean, range, Why is mutation not “random”? What are some stabilizing selection, directional selection, possible types of mutations…are some more disruptive selection, sexual selection, facial beneficial or detrimental than others? How are symmetry, selection by female & male, alleles selected for or against? What impact does isolating mechanism, prezygotic mechanisms, this have on the population? How do averages postzygotic mechanisms, ecological isolation, influence sexual selection, why is being “average” temporal isolation, behavioural isolation, good? Why is having high hormone levels mechanical isolation, gametic isolation, zygotic beneficial in mate selection? Why have we mortality, hybrid inviability, hybrid infertility, evolved to find certain traits attractive? How does speciation, allotpatric speciation, sympatric isolation affect evolution? How are different speciation, divergent evolution, convergent species formed? How does natural selection evolution, placental mammals, marsupials, happen (be specific)? How fast does evolution natural selection, theory of gradualism, happen? transitional form, theory of punctuated equilibrium What do I need to study in this section? Questions I have are… Hominid Evolution Terms: Concepts: Bonobo, Chimpanzee, Gorilla, Sagittal How did the habitat changes in Africa affect primate crest, Sahelanthropus tchadensis, evolution? Under which conditions did our ancestors Ardipithecus ramidus, Australopithecus evolve? What did they eat as herbivores? As carnivores? anamensis, Australopithecus What challenges did our ancestors face to survive and anamensis, Australopithecus afarensis, find food? How did we overcome these problems? How Australopithecus africanus, are our bones different from those of gorillas and Paranthropus, Homo habilis, Homo chimpanzees? What are the overall characteristics of the erectus, Homo neanderthalis, Homo difference species of hominids? What is the difference sapiens idaltu, Homo sapiens sapiens between homo sapiens sapiens & homo sapiens idaltu? What are some overall trends in hominid evolution? What are the three major groups of hominids?