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Also called Biomolecules or Organic Molecules
Most “life” molecules have a backbone of
Carbon can form 4 bonds so many atoms can
bond and branch off.
Many molecules are composed mostly of
carbon & hydrogen = Hydrocarbons
Biomolecules may be made of hundreds to
millions of atoms!
Large molecules are built from smaller,
repeating units.
Monomer =
Small molecular
units that make up a
Polymer = Long chains of
Classified into four main groups
 Carbohydrates
 Lipids
 Proteins
 Nucleic
-Made of: Monosaccharides
These are simple sugars.
-When you put monosaccharides together,
you get: Polysaccharide
- A key source of energy for the body.
-They turn into energy for all cells.
Examples of Carbohydrates:
 Starch – stored energy in plants
 Glycogen – stored energy in animals
 Cellulose – structural support in plants
Monomers: Glycerol & Fatty Acids
Polymers: Fat
Energy Storage
◦ “Water Fearing”
◦ Saturated Fat – all fatty acid chains contain
max of hydrogen atoms (all single bonds).
◦ Solid at room
◦ Contribute to
an unhealthy
Unsaturated Fats – contain less than the
maximum number of hydrogen atoms in the
fatty acid chains.
Liquid at room temp.
Healthier choice.
Carbon skeleton forms four fused rings.
Chemical Message
◦ Testosterone
(male hormone)
◦ Estrogen
(female hormone)
◦ Cholesterol
Monomer: Amino Acid
Polymer: Polypeptide
Examples & Uses:
◦ Body Structures: Hair, Fur, Nails, Muscle.
◦ Long Term Nutrient Storage.
◦ Body Defense – Receptors on Cells
◦ Control Chemical Reactions
Watch enzyme animations:
Used to speed up chemical reactions in a cell.
(lowers the amount of energy needed)
End in “ase”
Protease breaks down proteins
Lipase breaks down fats
Enzymes are catalysts:
Speeds up reaction, can be used over and over
again. The reaction does not change it (like a
Acts on a substrate:
The substance that is changed during the
 An
enzyme lowers the energy needed so that
the reaction can work at normal cell
How an Enzyme Works:
 Shape of an enzyme only fits particular
molecules (substrate)
 Active site → where the substrate fits
Proteins are made of chains of amino acids twisted,
folded and coiled into a unique shape.
◦ Yarn = string of amino acids
◦ Sweater= protein with a purpose!
The “folds” determine the function.
Denaturation: When proteins
are affected and lose their shape.
Ex: Frying an Egg