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Please Answer in complete Sentences Explain why Eric the Red called the land he found west of Iceland, “Greenland.” What did the Fatimid Caliphate do to upset Christians in Europe? Define “tribute”. The Conqueror, The Turks, Emperor vs. Pope and Crusaders Seljuks Antipope William El the Conqueror The Great Schism Harold Godwinson Battle of Manzikert Gregory VII Henry IV Cid The First Crusade The Kingdom of Jerusalem Military Orders Knights Templar The White Ship The Anglo-Saxons and Danes struggled to share power in England. The Rus’ convert to Orthodox Christianity and ally with the Byzantine Empire to defeat the Khazars in the Southern Russian Steppe. Poland, Hungary, Sweden and Iceland all also convert to Christianity. The Vikings reach Greenland and North America. The Fatimid Caliphate, al-Hakim, persecutes Christians and Jews in Jerusalem. Beowulf is written by an anonymous author. The Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba collapses. Byzantine general George Maniaces captures Edessa. Panic spreads throughout Europe that the end of the universe may be near, on the supposed 1,000th anniversary of the crucifixion of Christ, due to some unusually harsh spring weather. George Maniaces begins a campaign against the Arabs in Sicily. The first contact occurs between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuks. Battle of Val-ès-Dunes: William the Conqueror, with assistance from King Henry I of France, secures control of Normandy by defeating the rebel Norman barons at Caen. Last Viking raid on the Kingdom of England; unsuccessful raiders flee to Flanders. Cardinal Humbertus, a representative of Pope Leo IX, and Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, decree each other excommunication. Most historians look to this act as the final step in the initiation of the Great Schism between the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Christian Churches. The Seljuk Turks capture Baghdad. The Muslims expel 300 Christians from Jerusalem, and European Christians are forbidden to enter the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. The Lateran Council makes the College of Cardinals the sole voters in the election of popes. Muhammed ben Da'ud, known as Alp Arslan, becomes second sultan of the Seljuk Turks. The Seljuk Turks storm Anatolia, taking Caesarea and Ani, marking the beginning of Turkish incursions into Anatolia. Norman conquest of England. January 4 – Edward the Confessor died. The Witan proclaims Harold Godwinson King of England. September 20 – Battle of Fulford: Harald Hardrada, King of Norway, defeats the northern English earls Edwin and Morcar. September 25 – Battle of Stamford Bridge: King Harold II of England defeats the Vikings under Harald Hardrada. September 28 – Duke William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. October 14 – Battle of Hastings, fought between King Harold II of England and Duke William of Normandy: Harold is killed and William is victorious. December 25 – Duke William of Normandy is crowned King William I of England. Granada massacre: A Muslim mob storms the royal palace in Granada, crucifies Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela and massacres most of the Jewish population of the city. Harrying of the North: King William of England (William the Conqueror) reacts to rebellions made by his Anglo Saxon subjects against him. He rides through the north of England with his army and burns houses, crops, cattle and land from York to Durham, which results in the deaths of over 100,000 people, mainly from starvation and winter cold. Battle of Manzikert: The Byzantine Empire loses to a Turkish army led by Alp Arslan. Byzantine civil war resulted in Turkish conquest of Anatolia. The Normans conquer Palermo in Sicily. Pope Gregory VII publishes the Dictatus Papae (Sayings of the Pope, aka the Dictates of Hildebrand), in which he asserts papal authority over earthly as well as spiritual rulers. The Seljuk Turks take Jerusalem from the Fatimids. The German bishops who have been invested by Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor withdraw their allegiance from Pope Gregory VII. Pope Gregory VII excommunicates Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor. Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, visits Pope Gregory VII as a penitent, asking him remove sentence of excommunication. Walk to Canossa: The excommunication of Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor is lifted. The German Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor besieges Rome and gains entry; a synod is agreed upon by the Romans to rule on the dispute between Henry and Pope Gregory VII. Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor is crowned Emperor by Antipope Clement III. Rome is besieged by the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, and is then sacked by the Normans of Robert Guiscard, who intended to restore papal authority over the city. Pope Gregory VII, who had been imprisoned by Henry IV at the Castel Sant'Angelo, Rome, is freed by Robert Guiscard. Antioch is captured by the Seljuk Turks from the Byzantines. Alfonso VI of Castile enters the Islamic city of Toledo, Spain, and invites French knights to settle the central plateau of Spain. Battle of az-Zallaqah: Alfonso VI of León and Castile is defeated by the Almoravids, who had been called into Spain by Abbad III of Sevilla. Syracuse, the last Muslim stronghold in Sicily, is conquered by the Normans. Battle of Levounion: The Pechenegs besiege Constantinople, but are defeated so decisively by Emperor Alexius I that they fade into oblivion. With the taking of Noto, the Normans complete the 30 year long conquest of Sicily from the Islamic rulers. Roger Guiscard takes Malta. The Islamic Abbadid dynasty ruling in Spain falls when the Almoravids storm Seville. El Cid completes his conquest of Valencia, Spain, and begins his rule of Valencia. The Almoravid campaign to regain the city fails. Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus sends ambassadors to Pope Urban II, at the Council of Piacenza, to discuss sending mercenaries against the Seljuk Turks. The Council of Clermont begins. The council is called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land. Pope Urban II preaches the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont; Peter the Hermit begins to preach throughout France. On the last day of the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II appoints Bishop Adhemar of Le Puy and Count Raymond IV of Toulouse to lead the First Crusade to the Holy Land. The People's Crusade, the German Crusade, and the First Crusade begins. Kilij Arslan I of the Turks defeats a band of Crusaders near İznik. A large band of Crusaders approaches Speyer and massacres the Jewish population. The First Crusade proceeds towards Palestine: June 3 – the Norman crusaders join the rest of the army during the siege of Nicaea. June 19 – the city of Nicaea falls to the Crusaders after a month siege. July 1 – Crusaders win the Battle of Dorylaeum and capture Latakia from the Seljuk Turks. October 21 – the siege of Antioch by the crusaders begins. December 31 – at the battle of Harenc, the crusaders defeat the troops from Aleppo trying to come to the relief of besieged Antioch. The first Crusade proceeds towards Palestine. February 9 – the crusaders defeat Ridwan of Aleppo. June 3 – after eight months of siege, the crusaders take Antioch. June 28 – the emir Kerbogha of Mossul is defeated by the crusaders at the battle of Orontes. December 12 – after a month siege, the crusaders take Maarat and massacre part of the population. August – The Fatimids retake Jerusalem from the Turks. The Byzantine Empire retakes Smyrna, Ephesus and Sardis. Siege of Jerusalem during the First Crusade: January 13 – Crusaders set fire to Mara, Syria. June 7 – The First Crusade: The Siege of Jerusalem begins. July 8 – 15,000 starving Christian soldiers march around Jerusalem. July 15 – Christian soldiers under Godfrey of Bouillon, Robert II of Flanders, Raymond IV of Toulouse and Tancred take Jerusalem after a difficult siege. July 22 – The Kingdom of Jerusalem is founded. August 12 – The Crusaders defeat the Fatimids at the Battle of Ascalon. Raymond de Saint-Gilles sails to Byzantium to obtain the support of the emperor Alexios in his attempt to seize Tripoli. After a success over the Armenians of Cilicia and the emirate of Aleppo, Baldwin of Bourcq becomes Count of Edessa with the support of the patriarch Dagobert of Pisa. Genoa, Venice and Pisa gain trading privileges from the Crusader states in return for their service during the conquest of the coastal cities. The Almoravid emir, Yusuf ibn Tashfin, sends a maritime expedition to Palestine from Sevilla to ward off the Crusaders and maybe to reconquer Jerusalem. The fleet of more or less seventy ships rush into a storm in the Mediterranean and is never seen again. The Order of the Knights of the Hospital of Saint John, founded to protect pilgrims to the Holy Land, vows to fight in its defense. Baldwin I of Jerusalem undertakes an invasion of Egypt. Pope Gelasius II grants the status of Crusade to the Christian effort in the Iberian Ebro valley attracting numerous Gascon, Occitan and Norman knights. Knights Templar Founded by Hugh de Payns. The White Ship is wrecked in the English Channel, resulting in the death of the son of King Henry I of England. Do the worksheet on the Magna Carta over the weekend. It is due on Tuesday 1/22. Continue to work on your other assignments and your project. Have a good 4 day weekend!