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Please Answer in complete Sentences
Explain why Eric the Red called the land he found west of
Iceland, “Greenland.”
What did the Fatimid Caliphate do to upset Christians in
Define “tribute”.
The Conqueror, The Turks, Emperor vs. Pope and Crusaders
 Seljuks
 Antipope
 William
 El
 The Great Schism
 Harold Godwinson
 Battle of Manzikert
 Gregory VII
 Henry IV
 The First Crusade
 The Kingdom of
 Military Orders
 Knights Templar
 The White Ship
The Anglo-Saxons and Danes struggled to share power in
The Rus’ convert to Orthodox Christianity and ally with the
Byzantine Empire to defeat the Khazars in the Southern
Russian Steppe.
Poland, Hungary, Sweden and Iceland all also convert to
The Vikings reach Greenland and North America.
The Fatimid Caliphate, al-Hakim, persecutes Christians and
Jews in Jerusalem.
Beowulf is written by an anonymous author.
 The
Moorish Caliphate
of Córdoba collapses.
 Byzantine
George Maniaces
captures Edessa.
 Panic
throughout Europe that
the end of the universe
may be near, on the
supposed 1,000th
anniversary of the
crucifixion of Christ,
due to some unusually
harsh spring weather.
 George
begins a campaign
against the Arabs in
 The
first contact occurs
between the Byzantine
Empire and the
 Battle
of Val-ès-Dunes:
William the Conqueror,
with assistance from
King Henry I of France,
secures control of
Normandy by defeating
the rebel Norman
barons at Caen.
 Last
Viking raid on the
Kingdom of England;
unsuccessful raiders
flee to Flanders.
Cardinal Humbertus, a
representative of Pope Leo
IX, and Michael Cerularius,
Patriarch of
Constantinople, decree
each other
excommunication. Most
historians look to this act
as the final step in the
initiation of the Great
Schism between the
Roman Catholic and
Orthodox Christian
 The
Seljuk Turks
capture Baghdad.
 The
Muslims expel 300
Christians from
Jerusalem, and
European Christians
are forbidden to enter
the Church of the Holy
 The
Lateran Council
makes the College of
Cardinals the sole
voters in the election of
 Muhammed
Da'ud, known as Alp
Arslan, becomes
second sultan of the
Seljuk Turks.
 The
Seljuk Turks storm
Anatolia, taking
Caesarea and Ani,
marking the beginning
of Turkish incursions
into Anatolia.
Norman conquest of England.
January 4 – Edward the
Confessor died. The Witan
proclaims Harold Godwinson
King of England.
September 20 – Battle of
Fulford: Harald Hardrada, King
of Norway, defeats the northern
English earls Edwin and Morcar.
September 25 – Battle of
Stamford Bridge: King Harold II
of England defeats the Vikings
under Harald Hardrada.
September 28 – Duke William of
Normandy lands in England at
October 14 – Battle of Hastings,
fought between King Harold II of
England and Duke William of
Normandy: Harold is killed and
William is victorious.
December 25 – Duke William of
Normandy is crowned King
William I of England.
Granada massacre: A Muslim
mob storms the royal palace in
Granada, crucifies Jewish vizier
Joseph ibn Naghrela and
massacres most of the Jewish
population of the city.
Harrying of the North: King
William of England (William
the Conqueror) reacts to
rebellions made by his
Anglo Saxon subjects
against him. He rides
through the north of
England with his army and
burns houses, crops, cattle
and land from York to
Durham, which results in
the deaths of over
100,000 people, mainly
from starvation and winter
 Battle
of Manzikert:
The Byzantine Empire
loses to a Turkish army
led by Alp Arslan.
Byzantine civil war
resulted in Turkish
conquest of Anatolia.
 The
Normans conquer
Palermo in Sicily.
Pope Gregory VII
publishes the Dictatus
Papae (Sayings of the
Pope, aka the Dictates of
Hildebrand), in which he
asserts papal authority
over earthly as well as
spiritual rulers.
The Seljuk Turks take
Jerusalem from the
 The
German bishops
who have been
invested by Henry IV,
Holy Roman Emperor
withdraw their
allegiance from Pope
Gregory VII. Pope
Gregory VII
excommunicates Henry
IV, Holy Roman
 Henry
IV, Holy Roman
Emperor, visits Pope
Gregory VII as a
penitent, asking him
remove sentence of
Walk to Canossa: The
excommunication of
Henry IV, Holy Roman
Emperor is lifted.
 The
German Henry IV,
Holy Roman Emperor
besieges Rome and
gains entry; a synod is
agreed upon by the
Romans to rule on the
dispute between Henry
and Pope Gregory VII.
Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor is
crowned Emperor by Antipope
Clement III. Rome is besieged
by the Holy Roman Emperor
Henry IV, and is then sacked by
the Normans of Robert
Guiscard, who intended to
restore papal authority over the
city. Pope Gregory VII, who had
been imprisoned by Henry IV at
the Castel Sant'Angelo, Rome, is
freed by Robert Guiscard.
Antioch is captured by the Seljuk
Turks from the Byzantines.
 Alfonso
VI of Castile
enters the Islamic city
of Toledo, Spain, and
invites French knights
to settle the central
plateau of Spain.
Battle of az-Zallaqah:
Alfonso VI of León and
Castile is defeated by the
Almoravids, who had
been called into Spain by
Abbad III of Sevilla.
Syracuse, the last
Muslim stronghold in
Sicily, is conquered by
the Normans.
Battle of Levounion: The
Pechenegs besiege
Constantinople, but are
defeated so decisively by
Emperor Alexius I that they
fade into oblivion.
With the taking of Noto, the
Normans complete the 30
year long conquest of Sicily
from the Islamic rulers.
Roger Guiscard takes Malta.
The Islamic Abbadid dynasty
ruling in Spain falls when the
Almoravids storm Seville.
 El
Cid completes his
conquest of Valencia,
Spain, and begins his
rule of Valencia. The
Almoravid campaign to
regain the city fails.
Byzantine emperor Alexius I
Comnenus sends
ambassadors to Pope Urban
II, at the Council of Piacenza,
to discuss sending
mercenaries against the
Seljuk Turks.
The Council of Clermont
begins. The council is called
by Pope Urban II to discuss
sending the First Crusade to
the Holy Land. Pope Urban II
preaches the First Crusade at
the Council of Clermont;
Peter the Hermit begins to
preach throughout France.
On the last day of the Council
of Clermont, Pope Urban II
appoints Bishop Adhemar of
Le Puy and Count Raymond
IV of Toulouse to lead the
First Crusade to the Holy
The People's Crusade,
the German Crusade,
and the First Crusade
 Kilij Arslan I of the Turks
defeats a band of
Crusaders near İznik.
 A large band of
Crusaders approaches
Speyer and massacres
the Jewish population.
The First Crusade
proceeds towards
 June 3 – the Norman
crusaders join the rest of
the army during the
siege of Nicaea.
 June 19 – the city of
Nicaea falls to the
Crusaders after a month
July 1 – Crusaders win
the Battle of Dorylaeum
and capture Latakia
from the Seljuk Turks.
 October 21 – the siege
of Antioch by the
crusaders begins.
 December 31 – at the
battle of Harenc, the
crusaders defeat the
troops from Aleppo trying
to come to the relief of
besieged Antioch.
The first Crusade proceeds
towards Palestine.
February 9 – the crusaders
defeat Ridwan of Aleppo.
June 3 – after eight
months of siege, the
crusaders take Antioch.
June 28 – the emir
Kerbogha of Mossul is
defeated by the crusaders
at the battle of Orontes.
December 12 – after a
month siege, the crusaders
take Maarat and massacre
part of the population.
August – The Fatimids
retake Jerusalem from the
The Byzantine Empire
retakes Smyrna, Ephesus
and Sardis.
Siege of Jerusalem
during the First Crusade:
 January 13 – Crusaders
set fire to Mara, Syria.
 June 7 – The First
Crusade: The Siege of
Jerusalem begins.
 July 8 – 15,000 starving
Christian soldiers march
around Jerusalem.
July 15 – Christian
soldiers under Godfrey of
Bouillon, Robert II of
Flanders, Raymond IV of
Toulouse and Tancred
take Jerusalem after a
difficult siege.
 July 22 – The Kingdom
of Jerusalem is founded.
 August 12 – The
Crusaders defeat the
Fatimids at the Battle of
Raymond de Saint-Gilles sails to
Byzantium to obtain the support
of the emperor Alexios in his
attempt to seize Tripoli.
After a success over the
Armenians of Cilicia and the
emirate of Aleppo, Baldwin of
Bourcq becomes Count of
Edessa with the support of the
patriarch Dagobert of Pisa.
Genoa, Venice and Pisa gain
trading privileges from the
Crusader states in return for
their service during the
conquest of the coastal cities.
The Almoravid emir,
Yusuf ibn Tashfin, sends
a maritime expedition to
Palestine from Sevilla to
ward off the Crusaders
and maybe to reconquer
Jerusalem. The fleet of
more or less seventy
ships rush into a storm
in the Mediterranean
and is never seen again.
 The
Order of the
Knights of the Hospital
of Saint John, founded
to protect pilgrims to
the Holy Land, vows to
fight in its defense.
 Baldwin
I of Jerusalem
undertakes an invasion
of Egypt.
 Pope
Gelasius II grants
the status of Crusade
to the Christian effort
in the Iberian Ebro
valley attracting
numerous Gascon,
Occitan and Norman
 Knights
Founded by Hugh de
 The
White Ship is
wrecked in the English
Channel, resulting in
the death of the son of
King Henry I of
Do the worksheet on the Magna Carta over the weekend. It
is due on Tuesday 1/22.
Continue to work on your other assignments and your
Have a good 4 day weekend!