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Transcript
TEST BANK
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1.
_____________ is popular among drug enthusiasts, and some users snort heroin and
smoke crack in combination.
a.
drug crossing
b.
criss-crossing
c.
drug spiking
d.
potentiating
ANS: B
2.
REF: 34
LO: 3
The __________ acts as a gatekeeper to prevent certain substances from entering brain
tissue.
a.
hypothalamus
b.
medial forebrain bundle
c.
blood-brain barrier
d.
amygdala
ANS: C
4.
LO: 2
In reaction to emotional memories burned into it by the intensity of the drug euphoria, the
__________ operates outside of conscious control to cause intense cravings.
a.
hypothalamus
b.
medial forebrain bundle
c.
blood-brain barrier
d.
amygdala
ANS: D
3.
REF: 31
REF: 31-32
LO: 1
The _________________ controls such basic drives as sexual activity.
a.
hypothalamus
b.
medial forebrain bundle
c.
blood-brain barrier
d.
amygdala
ANS: A
REF: 34
LO: 3
19
Test Bank
5.
Neurotransmitter levels are controlled by chemicals in the presynaptic terminal which are
known as _________.
a.
agonists
b.
catecholamines
c.
monoamine oxidases (MAO)
d.
antagonists
ANS: C
6.
LO: 1
REF: 23
LO: 1
The term kindling is an alternative term for __________.
a.
reverse tolerance
b.
sensitization
c.
tolerance
d.
selective tolerance
ANS: A
9.
REF: 27
One of the last parts of the brain to mature deals with the ability to _______________..
a.
make sound judgments
b.
control movement
c.
communicate
d.
all of the above
ANS: A
8.
LO: 1
Substances that stimulate receptor sites are known as __________.
a.
agonists
b.
catecholamines
c.
monoamine oxidases (MAO)
d.
antagonists
ANS: A
7.
REF: 27
REF: 33
LO: 3
Increased sensitivity to the same or lesser dosage of a drug over time is known as _____.
a.
reverse tolerance
b.
sensitization
c.
tolerance
d.
selective tolerance
ANS: A
REF: 33
LO: 3
20
Chapter 2: The Biology of Psychoactive Substances
10.
When determining risk versus reward, the _______________ tends to emphasize benefits
while discounting dangers.
a.
adult brain
b.
adolescent neurons
c.
adolescent brain
d.
adult neurons
ANS: C
11.
LO: 1
REF: 34
LO: 3
A ___________ is the basic working unit of the central nervous system.
a.
neuron
b.
cell body
c.
synapsis
d.
neurotransmitter
ANS: A
14.
REF: 31
Brain imaging and other technologies show that the addicted brain is _____________
from the nonaddictive brain.
a.
somewhat different
b.
not different
c.
distinctly different
d.
comparatively different
ANS: C
13.
LO: 1
Psychoactive drugs are absorbed into the bloodstream and quickly carried to the _______
nervous system.
a.
central
b.
autonomic
c.
sympathetic
d.
parasympathetic
ANS: A
12.
REF: 24
REF: 24
LO: 1
__________ where neurotransmitters attach cause chemical substances to interact and
produce pharmacological actions.
a.
Transmitting neurons
b.
Axon terminals
c.
Receptor sites
d.
Receiving neurons
ANS: C
REF: 27
LO: 1
21
Test Bank
15.
An important part of the cell body are __________, which appear as branches of a tree
and receive messages from other neurons.
a.
Serotonin
b.
Norepinephrine
c.
Dendrites
d.
Dopamine
ANS: C
16.
LO: 1
REF: 26
LO: 1
Depending on the type of _______________, electrical charges from the adjoining
neuron are either inhibited or enhanced.
a.
neurotransmitter
b.
neuron
c.
drug
d.
drug cues
ANS: A
19.
REF: 27
__________ activates nerve cell receptors to stimulate pleasurable feelings.
a.
Serotonin
b.
Norepinephrine
c.
Dendrites
d.
Dopamine
ANS: D
18.
LO: 1
Neurotransmitters are broken down by MAO or recycled by the sending neuron in a
process called ______________.
a.
reuptake
b.
transportation
c.
homeoestase
d.
synthesis
ANS: A
17.
REF: 24
REF: 27
LO: 1
___________, one of about 100 neurotransmitters found in the central nervous system,
has received special attention because of its apparent role in the regulation of mood and
affect and because of its role in motivation and reward processes.
a.
Serotonin
b.
Norepinephrine
c.
Dendrites
d.
Dopamine
ANS: D
REF: 26
LO: 1
22
Chapter 2: The Biology of Psychoactive Substances
20.
The National Institute on Drug Abuse reports that infants who are born to heroin-abusing
mothers frequently suffer from ________________________.
a.
neonatal adaptation syndrome
b.
neonatal abstinence syndrome
c.
neonatal disability syndrome
d.
neonatal syndrome of polyendocrinopathy
ANS: B
21.
LO: 1
REF: 24
LO: 1
Many, if not most, people who have been exposed to ____________ or heroin, for
example, find the initial experience distinctly unpleasant.
a.
morphine
b.
benzodiazepine
c.
cocaine
d.
serotonin
ANS: A
24.
REF: 26
__________, a part of neurons, are contact points for communication between neurons.
a.
Transporters
b.
Synapses
c.
Receptors
d.
Neurotransmitters
ANS: B
23.
LO: 4
__________ trigger activity by moving across the synaptic gap to receptor sites on the
dendrites on the other side.
a.
Transporters
b.
Synapses
c.
Receptors
d.
Neurotransmitters
ANS: D
22.
REF: 35
REF: 28
LO: 1
Consuming more than one type of psychoactive chemical is called _________.
a.
multidrug use
b.
criss-crossing
c.
polydrug use
d.
additive effects
ANS: C
REF: 30
LO: 2
23
Test Bank
TRUE/FALSE
1.
The greater the half-life of a drug, the more severe the withdrawal symptoms after use of
the drug is discontinued.
ANS: F
2.
REF: 33
LO: 3
REF: 24
LO: 1
REF: 34
LO: 3
REF: 33
LO: 3
Homeostasis is a state of equilibrium achieved through the self-adjusting characteristics
of the body.
ANS: T
10.
LO: 1
Selective tolerance is also referred to as kindling.
ANS: F
9.
REF: 27
The hypothalamus regulates the release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
ANS: T
8.
LO: 2
Neurons do not interlock but instead are separated by synapses.
ANS: T
7.
REF: 30
The continued use of certain drugs, particularly depressants, can produce tolerance.
ANS: T
6.
LO: 4
Reuptake is the sending neuron’s process of recycling neurotransmitters.
ANS: T
5.
REF: 35
Catecholamine, dopamine, norepinephrine, and endorphins are examples of polydrugs.
ANS: F
4.
LO: 2
Cocaine use by pregnant women has been linked to various abnormalities in their infants
because the substance reduces the supply of blood and oxygen to the fetus.
ANS: T
3.
REF: 32
REF: 33
LO: 3
A neuron consists of a cell body (soma), the axon, synapses, and dendrites.
ANS: T
REF: 24
LO: 1
24
Chapter 2: The Biology of Psychoactive Substances
COMPLETION
1.
__________ is the basic building block for the advancement of human knowledge.
ANS: Theory
2.
LO: 1
REF: 28
LO: 1
REF: 30
LO: 2
REF: 33
LO: 3
Children born to __________-addicted mothers, in addition to having a host of other
physical problems, such as small size, anemia, heart disease, hepatitis, and pneumonia,
also suffer from withdrawal symptoms.
ANS: heroin
9.
REF: 27
____________develops as the body becomes progressively immune to the chemical
effects of the drug at the cellular level.
ANS: Tolerance
8.
LO: 1
Understanding the biology of psychoactive drugs is complicated by the phenomenon of
_______ use—abusers consuming more than one type of psychoactive chemical.
ANS: polydrug
7.
REF: 25
The __________ model emphasizes the involuntary nature of drug use—use based on a
craving—that has found support in laboratory experiments with animals.
ANS: disease
6.
LO: 1
With regular drug use, ___________ become less responsive to drugs that stimulate
them.
ANS: receptors
5.
REF: 27
A cell body is also called a __________.
ANS: soma
4.
LO: 1
Neurotransmitter level is controlled by chemicals in presynaptic terminals known as
______________________ (MAO) and transporters that recycle them for further use.
ANS: monoamine oxidases
3.
REF: 28
REF: 35
LO: 4
___________ use by pregnant women has been linked to serious emotional
difficulties in children which can hinder their social and psychological
development.
ANS: Cocaine
REF: 35
25
LO: 4
Test Bank
10.
The neurological effects of mixing drugs can be additive, synergistic, potentiating, or
_______________.
.
ANS: antagonistic
REF: 31
LO:
ESSAY
1.
Explain the three ways in which drugs can enter the bloodstream.
ANS: N/A
2.
LO: 3
REF: 33
LO 3
Explain the additive, synergistic, potentiating, and antagonistic neurological effects of
mixing drugs.
ANS: N/A
5.
REF: 33
Explain the concept of reverse tolerance.
ANS: N/A
4.
LO: 1
Explain homeostasis.
ANS: N/A
3.
REF: 32
REF: 31
LO: 2
What are the symptoms of children who were born with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder?
ANS: N/A
REF: 36-37
LO: 4
26