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Transcript
Name: _________________________________
Honors Biology
Chapter 1: Evolution and the Foundations of Biology
Characteristics of Life:
1. _________________is the process of change that has transformed life on Earth
2. What is biology?
3. Biology is the study of ____________
Comes in a variety of _________ & __________
Biologists study life in many different ways
It also is the study of ___________
4. Properties that characterize life
a. _____________: all organisms consist of
one or more cells (or order
within internal & external parts and how they interact with the world)
b. __________: all living things are highly ordered…we have many different
types of cells
c. _____________: all organisms respond to stimuli
d. _____________________: must pass on our genetics
e. ____________________: all organisms use energy in our body(this energy
depends on metabolism)
f. ____________________: all organisms interact with other organisms & the
environment for survival.
g. ____________________: internal conditions suitable for their environment
5. What defines the characteristics of life? (hint: as being the most important factor).
All living things must be able to do this in order to be characterized as living:
4 THEMES IN BIOLOGY
6. Theme 1: Different levels of Biological Organization
1.
2.
3.
7. Population Level:
a. ________________: consist of life on earth and the places where life exist
b. ________________: the community & habitat where it lives together in an
ecological system
c. ________________: all the populations of different species living together in
one place
d. ________________: most basic a group of organism of the same species
living in the same place
e. ________________: its members similar in appearance are able to interbreed
8. Organismal Level:
a. _______________: are groups of organs (I.e. the nervous system consist of
sensory organs used by the brain, spinal cord & neurons that send signals to &
from them)
b. _______________: are groups of tissues (i.e. brain is an organ made of nerve
cells & connective tissue)
c. _______________: the most basic level which are groups of similar cells
9. Cellular Level:
a. _______________: are the basic unit of life
b. _______________: are tiny organs of the cell
c. _______________: are clusters of atoms
d. _______________: are the basic units of matter
10. ___________________ result from the arrangement and interaction of parts
within a system. They characterize nonbiological entities as well
11. Theme 2: Life’s processes involve expression of gene information:
12. Genes are made of___________. Heredity depends on the copying of DNA from
one generation to the next.
13. _____________: entire set of DNA instructions within a cell
14. Theme 3: Life requires the transfer and transformation of energy and Matter:
15. Input of energy, (from the sun) and transformation of energy from one form to
another make ______________
16. Theme 4: Organisms interact with other organisms within the environment:
Every organism interacts with _______________ in its environment. Both
organisms and their environments are affected by the interactions between them.
EVOLUTION:
17. What is the core theme in biology?
18. Evolution makes sense of everything we know about living organisms
a. Evolution explains patterns of ______________________ in living organisms
b. Similar traits among organisms are explained by descent from common
___________
c. Differences among organisms are explained by of __________________
19. List the 3 Biological Domains of Life:
1.
2.
3.
a.
b.
c.
d.
CHARLES DARWIN:
20. Charles Darwin
a. sailed on board the _________________
b. findings led to the development of the __________________
c. theory became the core of ____________________d. wrote:
e. Said living things: _______________________
f. natural selection? Or not? You decide……
21. Charles Darwin made two points:
1.
2.
22. Darwin Observed:
Individuals in a population vary in their traits, many of which are __________
More offspring are produced than survive, and ___________ is inevitable
Species generally suit their _____________
23. Darwin Determined:
Individuals that are best suited to their environment are more likely to
_______________________
Over time, more individuals in a population will have the
______________________.
This process is called: _________________________
24. Darwin’s evidence drew ideas from Charles Lyell’s “Principles of Geologyspecies were becoming extinct while others were emerging
1. Observed fossils:
2. Geographical Distribution:
3. Oceanic Islands:
25. His life on the Galapagos:
26. Natural selection is a mechanism for ______________________________.
It occurs when organisms with favorable variations survive, reproduce and pass
their to the next ____________________
As a result, each generation consist largely of offspring from parents with these
changes
27. Natural selection can significantly alter the genetic equilibrium of a population’s
gene pool over time. Significant changes in the gene pool could lead to the
evolution of a new _______________
28. The evolution of new species, a process called ________________ occurs when
members of similar populations no longer interbreed to produce fertile offspring
within their natural environment.
29. Geographical isolation occurs when:
30. _______________________ is the process of intentional or unintentional
modification of a species through human actions which encourage the breeding of
certain traits over others.
31. Evolution after Darwin: more evidence
a. More extensive ____________ support the theory of natural selection
b. Mechanism of heredity: _____________ accounts in a neat & orderly way
for the production of new variations of species
c. _____________ compares animals with strong evidence for evolution
d. _________________ DNA evidence links organisms to past organisms
32. Homologous structure:
Vestigial Structure:
Analogous Structure:
33. About ___________ of all species that have existed are extinct. Scientist use
fossils to learn about the ancient species.
SCIENTIFIC METHOD:
34. Define scientific method
35. The methods of science are based on 2 principles:
1.
2.
36. List the steps of the scientific method (*know what each step is used for)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Hypothesis is:
37. List 2 ways scientists use reasoning
1.
2.
38. What is deductive reasoning?
39. What is inductive reasoning?
40. Describe the two steps used in establishing a control:
1.
2.
The dependent variable is usually the result of the experiment, the thing you
measure. The independent variable is what causes the results.
41. A hypothesis is most useful when it makes predictions, because predictions
provide a way to test the validity of the hypothesis
a. If experimental results are __________________ with the predictions,
then the hypothesis must be ______________
b. If experimental results are __________________ with the predictions then
the hypothesis must be ______________.
42. Applied Research vs Basic Research: