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Name: _________________________________
Honors Biology
Chapter 1: Evolution and the Foundations of Biology
Characteristics of Life:
1. _________________is the process of change that has transformed life on Earth
2. What is biology?
3. Biology is the study of ____________
Comes in a variety of _________ & __________
Biologists study life in many different ways
It also is the study of ___________
4. Properties that characterize life
a. _____________: all organisms consist of
one or more cells (or order
within internal & external parts and how they interact with the world)
b. __________: all living things are highly ordered…we have many different
types of cells
c. _____________: all organisms respond to stimuli
d. _____________________: must pass on our genetics
e. ____________________: all organisms use energy in our body(this energy
depends on metabolism)
f. ____________________: all organisms interact with other organisms & the
environment for survival.
g. ____________________: internal conditions suitable for their environment
5. What defines the characteristics of life? (hint: as being the most important factor).
All living things must be able to do this in order to be characterized as living:
6. Theme 1: Different levels of Biological Organization
7. Population Level:
a. ________________: consist of life on earth and the places where life exist
b. ________________: the community & habitat where it lives together in an
ecological system
c. ________________: all the populations of different species living together in
one place
d. ________________: most basic a group of organism of the same species
living in the same place
e. ________________: its members similar in appearance are able to interbreed
8. Organismal Level:
a. _______________: are groups of organs (I.e. the nervous system consist of
sensory organs used by the brain, spinal cord & neurons that send signals to &
from them)
b. _______________: are groups of tissues (i.e. brain is an organ made of nerve
cells & connective tissue)
c. _______________: the most basic level which are groups of similar cells
9. Cellular Level:
a. _______________: are the basic unit of life
b. _______________: are tiny organs of the cell
c. _______________: are clusters of atoms
d. _______________: are the basic units of matter
10. ___________________ result from the arrangement and interaction of parts
within a system. They characterize nonbiological entities as well
11. Theme 2: Life’s processes involve expression of gene information:
12. Genes are made of___________. Heredity depends on the copying of DNA from
one generation to the next.
13. _____________: entire set of DNA instructions within a cell
14. Theme 3: Life requires the transfer and transformation of energy and Matter:
15. Input of energy, (from the sun) and transformation of energy from one form to
another make ______________
16. Theme 4: Organisms interact with other organisms within the environment:
Every organism interacts with _______________ in its environment. Both
organisms and their environments are affected by the interactions between them.
17. What is the core theme in biology?
18. Evolution makes sense of everything we know about living organisms
a. Evolution explains patterns of ______________________ in living organisms
b. Similar traits among organisms are explained by descent from common
c. Differences among organisms are explained by of __________________
19. List the 3 Biological Domains of Life:
20. Charles Darwin
a. sailed on board the _________________
b. findings led to the development of the __________________
c. theory became the core of ____________________d. wrote:
e. Said living things: _______________________
f. natural selection? Or not? You decide……
21. Charles Darwin made two points:
22. Darwin Observed:
Individuals in a population vary in their traits, many of which are __________
More offspring are produced than survive, and ___________ is inevitable
Species generally suit their _____________
23. Darwin Determined:
Individuals that are best suited to their environment are more likely to
Over time, more individuals in a population will have the
This process is called: _________________________
24. Darwin’s evidence drew ideas from Charles Lyell’s “Principles of Geologyspecies were becoming extinct while others were emerging
1. Observed fossils:
2. Geographical Distribution:
3. Oceanic Islands:
25. His life on the Galapagos:
26. Natural selection is a mechanism for ______________________________.
It occurs when organisms with favorable variations survive, reproduce and pass
their to the next ____________________
As a result, each generation consist largely of offspring from parents with these
27. Natural selection can significantly alter the genetic equilibrium of a population’s
gene pool over time. Significant changes in the gene pool could lead to the
evolution of a new _______________
28. The evolution of new species, a process called ________________ occurs when
members of similar populations no longer interbreed to produce fertile offspring
within their natural environment.
29. Geographical isolation occurs when:
30. _______________________ is the process of intentional or unintentional
modification of a species through human actions which encourage the breeding of
certain traits over others.
31. Evolution after Darwin: more evidence
a. More extensive ____________ support the theory of natural selection
b. Mechanism of heredity: _____________ accounts in a neat & orderly way
for the production of new variations of species
c. _____________ compares animals with strong evidence for evolution
d. _________________ DNA evidence links organisms to past organisms
32. Homologous structure:
Vestigial Structure:
Analogous Structure:
33. About ___________ of all species that have existed are extinct. Scientist use
fossils to learn about the ancient species.
34. Define scientific method
35. The methods of science are based on 2 principles:
36. List the steps of the scientific method (*know what each step is used for)
Hypothesis is:
37. List 2 ways scientists use reasoning
38. What is deductive reasoning?
39. What is inductive reasoning?
40. Describe the two steps used in establishing a control:
The dependent variable is usually the result of the experiment, the thing you
measure. The independent variable is what causes the results.
41. A hypothesis is most useful when it makes predictions, because predictions
provide a way to test the validity of the hypothesis
a. If experimental results are __________________ with the predictions,
then the hypothesis must be ______________
b. If experimental results are __________________ with the predictions then
the hypothesis must be ______________.
42. Applied Research vs Basic Research: