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Review on Clauses
What is a clause?
Any group of words having both a subject and a predicate.
◦ Subject = performs the action or identifies an entity in a state of being.
◦ Predicate = the verb and any words other than the subject and its modifiers.
What are simple and complete subjects
& predicates?
SIMPLE SUBJECT: a noun or pronoun that serves as the subject of the sentence.
COMPLETE SUBJECT: the subject and its modifying words, phrases, and clauses
Example: The young girl wrote the song for her best friend.
SS: girl
CS: The young girl
SIMPLE PREDICATE: the verb and helping verbs
COMPLETE PREDICATE: the verb or verb phrase and its modifying words, phrases, and clauses.
Example: The football team plays against Alter tomorrow night.
SP: plays
CP: plays against Alter tomorrow night.
Remind me about independent &
dependent clauses….
Independent clause, a.k.a. main clause, can stand independently as a complete sentence.
Dependent clause, a.k.a. subordinate clause, cannot stand along as a complete sentence and
must be attached to a main clause with a word like although, because, that, when, which, or
Example of a independent clause: The students went home after the game.
Example of dependent clause: After the team won the game, the students went home.
When do I use “that” and when do I use
Use “that” for essential, or restrictive, dependent clauses. In other words, you need the dependent
clause in the sentence to make sense.
Example: That dog is the one that bit my little sister.
Use “which” for nonessential, or nonrestrictive, dependent clauses. In other words, it adds additional
information that is not absolutely necessary.
Example: The sonnet, which is a form of poetry, was made famous by William Shakespeare.
*Sometimes deciding whether or not a dependent clause is restrictive involves your judgment.*
Relative Clauses
Dependent clauses that start with a relative pronoun are known as relative clauses. Relative
clauses can be adjective, adverb, or noun clauses.
Relative pronouns: who, whoever, whom, whomever, that, which, when, where, and whose
She is the student who won first prize in the competition. (starts with “who,” so it’s a relative
WATCH OUT! Sometimes, the relative pronoun is left out of the sentence, but if the group of
words has a subject and verb, it’s still a clause.
For example: The book I read was recently turned into a movie.
The relative pronoun “that” has been left out of the clause (that I read) but it is still a dependent clause.
Adjective Clauses
Describe nouns or pronouns.
Remember that adjectives answer the questions “What kind?” “Which one?” “How much?” or
“How many?”
Example: People who enjoy the books will like the new movie. (What kind of people?)
◦ The dependent clause describes which kind of people will like the new movie.
The book that I bought my mom is still her favorite book on the shelf. (Which book?)
The dependent clause describes which book the speaker is talking about.
Noun Clauses
Name persons, places, and things (just like nouns do).
Noun clauses work the same ways that nouns work in a sentence.
◦ In other words, noun clauses can be…
◦ Subjects of sentences
◦ Direct objects
◦ Indirect objects
◦ Objects of prepositions
◦ Predicate nouns
◦ Example: What I said was misinterpreted. (The dependent clause tells us the topic that was misinterpreted. The whole clause is the
subject of the sentence.)
◦ Example: The teacher explained why the students needed a notebook for class. (The dependent clause answers the question, “the
teacher explained what?” Therefore, the clause is the direct object of the verb explained.)
◦ Example: The school will give whoever holds the winning ticket a prize. ( The dependent clause names the recipient of the direct
object prize. The noun clause is the indirect object.
◦ Example: Marty will vote for whoever favors the school levy. (The dependent clause names the person will receive Marty’s vote.
The noun clause is the object of the preposition for.
◦ Example: Beth is whom the students chose. ( The dependent clause renaming the subject Beth after a linking verb (is). The clause is
the predicate noun.
Adverb Clauses
Describe verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.
Remember that adverbs answer the questions “When?” “Where?” “How?” or “To What
Example: My mom collects spoons wherever she travels. (The clause answers the question,
“Where does mom collect spoons?”
Example: If you drive a car, you must have car insurance. (The clause answers the question,
“When do you have to carry insurance?”)
Don’t mistake a group of words for a dependent clause when it is actually a phrase.
EXAMPLE: We are not often taught the correct rules for how to punctuate sentences.
◦ -the word “how” may make you think that the underlined portion is a dependent clause, but DON’T BE
FOOLED! If you look closely, you will see this is an infinitive phrase (to punctuate) and not a clause at
Let’s practice!
On your white board, write down if the following dependent clauses are adjective, noun, or
Students who appreciate British literature are going to enjoy
this novel.
A bakery created the cake that won the contest.
If you have chosen to enter the competition, ask the
director for the application form.
The tires I bought are supposed to be the best for driving in
Whoever raises the most money will be given an award.
The bookstore where we found the first edition is featured
on the show Today.
I understand why you made that choice.
She left the instructions for whoever is the last to leave the
Wherever they went, the team was greeted with cheers and
A crowd of reporters surrounded her when she came out of
the restaurant.
He would not accept the money because he saw it as a