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Transcript
Development of the Bandgap Voltage Reference Circuit, Featuring Dynamic-Threshold
MOS Transistors (DTMOST's) in 0.13um CMOS Technology.
V.Gromov
NIKHEF, Kruislaan 409, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
[email protected]
Abstract
A CMOS bandgap voltage reference circuit, featuring
dynamic-threshold MOS transistors (DTMOST's) has been
developed in the 0.13um CMOS technology. Insensitive to
temperature and power supply variations, this cell is going to
be a key component for high quality data converters.
The proposed circuit fits well into the low supply-voltage
range of the current and future deep sub-micron technologies.
We have carried out pre-design characterizations of the
DTMOST structures taken from an experimental submit.
Design and specifications of the bandgap voltage reference
circuit have been presented. The circuit was submitted in a
CERN organized submit in May 2004.
I. Introduction.
With steadily decreasing power supply voltages (Vdd) in
present and future deep sub-micron CMOS technologies a
design of any voltage/current reference on-chip becomes a
non-trivial task.
The classical voltage summing bandgap reference circuit
(BGR) featuring parasitic diodes (p-diffusion in N-well) [1] is
not suited for a 0.13µm CMOS technology with a maximum
Vdd of 1.2V. It is so because the value of bandgap voltage in
silicon (1.12V) turns out to be very close to the maximum
Vdd admissible in the technology. This causes the circuit to
fail.
We intend to use a new structure called a dynamicthreshold MOS transistor (DTMOST) in place of conventional
diodes in the circuit (see Fig.1). Such a combination will
constitute a high-quality reference circuit able to fit into the
reduced supply voltage range of the 0.13µm CMOS
technology.
Vdd
II. Dynamic-Threshold MOS Transistor.
In 1999 Anne-Johan Annema proposed to use DTMOST
structure in CMOS technologies [2]. It is in fact a p-channel
MOS (PMOST) transistor with gate, drain and substrate
contacts connected together (see Fig.2). This device behaves
similar to a conventional diode with an exception. It needs far
lower bias voltage to operate (see Fig.3).
The exponential behaviour of the voltage-to-current
characteristic is of primary importance because it enables us
to construct a current source, which delivers a current that is
proportional to the absolute temperature (PTAT). This can be
used to implement a mechanism of temperature
compensation in a bandgap reference circuit [3]. The
conventional diode has an exponential voltage-to-current
relationship above 650mV while the DTMOST configuration
is exponential within a region from 100mV to 220mV (see
Fig.3).
Source
N well
Gate
U
Drain
I
Fig.2. DTMOST configuration on the basis of a PMOST.
2.5 10
I, A
5
Conventional
diode
configuration
DTMOST
configuration
5
2 10
20uA
5
Regions
1.5 10 of exponential
m4
j  2 behaviour
m3
j2
5
10uA
1 10
Vref
6
5uA
5 10
DTMOST’s
10
7
0.1
Fig.1. Architecture of the bandgap voltage reference circuit,
featuring DTMOST’s.
00
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.4
m4  m3
j1
j1
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.7
0.7
U, Volts
Fig.3. Current-to-voltage characteristics for both DTMOST
configuration and conventional diode configuration.
0.8
0.8
In order to design a complete bandgap reference circuit
the DTMOST structures have been characterized and
modelled. The current-to-voltage characteristic Id(Vgs) of the
DTMOST has been measured at various temperatures in a
temperature chamber . The DTMOST structures came from an
experimental submit in the 0.13µm CMOS technology. As
expected, voltage across the DTMOST is conversely
proportional to absolute temperature (see Fig.4). By the
approximation the lines to the low temperature region the
effective bandgap voltage is estimated to be 410mV (see
Fig.4).
After an appropriate adjustment, superposition of the
PTAT and the CTAT voltages results in a temperature
insensitive reference voltage (see Fig.6).
1.5
1.5
1.5
F1( z )
(z
1
273 ) 0.00072
U, mV
≈ 410 mV ≈ Reference voltage.
BG
i1
(z
273 ) 0.00072
F1( z )
1000
300
I=2µA
F1( z )
Linear fits
F2( z )
200
200
F3( z )
I=1µA
I=0.5µA
100
100
-250
250
-200
200
-150
150
-100
100
50
-50
BG  BG  BG  z  z  z
i0
i0
i0
00
50
50
Reference voltage = 393mV
0.5 0.5
00 0
00
CTAT
PTAT
50
50
100
100
150z 273
150
200
200
250
250
300
300
320
Absolute temperature, °
Fig.6. Temperature behaviour of the voltages in the circuit.
All the biases needed for operation of the circuit are
generated on-chip. The main specifications of the circuit taken
from SPECTRE simulations are listed here:
BG
i  2 300
BG
i3
1
1000
0
Estimated Bandgap voltage
400
400
Power supply voltage Vdd=1.2V
U, Volts
100
100
Temp, ºC
Fig.4. Voltage across the DTMOST at various currents as a
function of temperature.
III. Voltage reference circuit.
The complete voltage bandgap reference circuit consists
of the DTMOST devices, a pair of cascoded current sources
and a two-stage operational amplifier (see Fig.5). According
to the measurements voltage across the DTMOST is
Conversely Proportional to Absolute Temperature (CTAT).
On the other hand, the voltage across the chain of resistors is
Proportional to Absolute Temperature (PTAT) since the
current through the DTMOST’s goes up as temperature rises.
Reference voltage: 393mV
Temperature sensitivity: ±1.5mV (within a temperature
range from 0ºC to 80ºC ) (See Fig.6) .
Shift of the Reference voltage caused by supply voltage
variations: ±0.25mV (if the supply voltage varies in range from
0.9V to 1.4V ).
Power consumption: 60uW (50uA vs 1.2V)
Spread of the Reference voltage due to fabrication
process variations: σ=1.2mV.
Occupied area on the chip: 250um vs 60um
IV. Conclusions.
The 0.13um CMOS Technology provides designers with a
wide set of attractive options, in particular, those who develop
electronics to operate in high radiation environment.
The Voltage Bandgap Reference circuit needs revision in
order to fit into the reduced power supply voltage range of the
technology.
Dynamic-Threshold MOS Transistors (DTMOST) are able
to replace diodes in the classical Voltage Bandgap Reference
circuit as to be suited for the reduced power supply range .
V. References.
[1] Jiang Yueming and Lee Edward, Design of LowVoltage Bandgap Reference Using Transimpedance
Amplifier, IEEE TCAS II, vol.47, pp.552-555.34, pp. 76-80,
June 2000.
Vref
PTAT
CTAT
Fig.5. Schematic of the voltage reference circuit featuring
DTMOST’s.
[2] Anne-Johan Annema , Low-Power Bandgap
References Featuring DTMOST’s, IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits, vol.34, No.7, July 1999.
[3] Robert Pease, The Design of Band-Gap Reference
Circuits: Trials and Tribulations. IEEE 1990 Bipolar Circuits
and Technology Meeting, pp 214-218, 1990.