Download Darwin`s Theory of Evolution notesheet

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Natural selection wikipedia, lookup

Hologenome theory of evolution wikipedia, lookup

Paleontology wikipedia, lookup

The eclipse of Darwinism wikipedia, lookup

On the Origin of Species wikipedia, lookup

Evolution wikipedia, lookup

Saltation (biology) wikipedia, lookup

Adaptation wikipedia, lookup

Evolutionary history of life wikipedia, lookup

Transitional fossil wikipedia, lookup

Introduction to evolution wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Name ______________________________________
Date _________________________
Block __________
Darwin’s Theory of Evolution
The Puzzle of Life’s Diversity
 Define the following:

Evolution –

Theory –

Fossil –
 The total variety of all the organisms in the biosphere is _________________________.

The person who contributed to most to our understanding of evolution was
________________________ ________________________.

In 1831, at age 22, he joined the crew of the ________________________ as a
naturalist for a ________________________ voyage around the world.

During his travels, Darwin wrote thousands of pages in his journals, drew
pictures of things he saw, and collect a vast amount of ________________________ that led
him to propose a ________________________ ________________________ about the way ________________________
________________________.
 Darwin observed many ________________________. He saw that many plants and animals were very
well suited to their ________________________.
 Darwin collected ________________________, or the preserves of ancient organisms.
 Some of the fossils were unlike any creatures he had ever seen.
 Darwin wondered why the species in the fossils had disappeared.
 Darwin wondered?
 Why do Argentina and Australia have ________________________ ________________________even though they
have ________________________ ________________________ ________________________?
 Why are there no ________________________ in Australia and no ________________________ in England?
 Why have so many species disappeared?
 How are these ________________________ species ________________________ to living species?
 Who was Charles Darwin?
 While on his voyage around the world aboard the ________________________, Charles Darwin spent
about one month observing life on the
________________________ ________________________.
 There, he encountered some unique animals, such as ________________________ and
________________________.
 The Galapagos Island are close together but have very different
________________________.
 Some were hot and dry, with little vegetation.
 Others had more rainfall and were rich in vegetation.
 Each island had its own ________________________ ________________________ of plant and animal species.
 Darwin’s observation on the Galapagos Islands (group of
small islands west of South America) influenced him the
most.
 Darwin saw that the ________________________ of many animals and
plants ________________________ noticeably among the different
islands.
 He wondered whether animals on different islands had once belonged to the ________________________
________________________.
 According to this hypothesis, these ________________________ ________________________ would have
________________________ from an original ancestor species after becoming ________________________ from
one another.
 After his voyage, Darwin spent a great deal of time thinking about his findings.
 He began to wonder if animals living on different islands had once been members of the
________________________ ________________________ that had developed ________________________
characteristics after becoming ________________________ from one another in different habitats.
 Ideas that Shaped Darwin’s Thinking

________________________ and ________________________ helped scientists
recognize that Earth is many million years old, and that it changed over
time.

These ideas helped Darwin realize that ________________________
might ________________________ as well.

Knowing that Earth was very old convinced Darwin that there
had been ________________________________________________.
 ________________________ ________________________ observed that babies were being
born faster than people were dying. He reasoned that if the human
population continued to grow, sooner or later there would be
 Darwin thought this was true for all ________________________.
 ________________________________________________was one of the first scientists to recognize
living things ________________________________________________and that all species were
________________________ from other species.
 Lamark published his hypothesis of ________________________________________________ the year
Darwin was born.
 What’s wrong with Lamark’s hypothesis?
 Lamark didn’t know about genes and how traits are ________________________.



Lamarck proposed that by ________________________ use or disuse of organs, organisms
________________________ or ________________________ certain traits during their life time. These traits
could then be passed on to their offspring.
Over time, this process led to change in ________________________.
Scientists now know that some of Lamarck’s ideas were wrong. (You can’t control what traits
are passed on to the next generation)
 What’s right with Lamark’s hypothesis?
 Lamark was first to develop a scientific hypothesis about ________________________ and recognize
that organisms are ________________________________________________.
 Darwin Presents his Case
 After Darwin returned to England in 1836 he filled notebooks
with ideas about ________________________ ________________________and
the process he would later call ________________________.
 He did not rush to publish his ideas because they
________________________ with the fundamental scientific
________________________ of his day.
 In 1858 another naturalist, ________________________________________, wrote an essay describing his work
in ________________________ that summarized the same ideas ________________________ had been thinking
about for 25 years.
 Darwin’s observations led him to develop the scientific ________________________ ________________________,
which explains how modern organisms ________________________ over long periods of time by
________________________ ________________________.
 In 1859, Darwin published his work, ________________________________________.
 What was Darwin’s Theory?
 His ______________________________________ included the
following components:
 ________________________

________________________

________________________

________________________

________________________
 ________________________ - a species produce more offspring than can survive.
 Examples:
 ________________________________________________ – organisms in a population compete for scarce
resources.
 Examples:
 ________________________ – members of a population differ from each
other.
 Variation provides the “________________________” for evolution.

Helps a ________________________ survive in response to change.

Traits ________________________ in a habitat or different traits are

________________________.
Examples:

Genetically speaking ________________________ is a change in the frequency of ________________________

in a ________________________ over time.
Three sources of ________________________ ________________________:

________________________ – change in genetic material of a cell.
 Short-term results – most don’t show up in the next generation
 Long-term results – introduce new genes to the population.

________________________ ________________________ – result of meiosis
 Short-term results – one generation to the next see difference in phenotype that
affect underlying genotypes.
 Long-term results – not adding different genes to the population

________________________ ________________________ – passing of genes from one organism to
another (not including offspring)
 ________________________ ________________________ – individual organisms with characteristics more
________________________ to their ________________________ are more likely to ________________________ and
________________________ and pass characteristics to the next ________________________.
 How Natural Selection works
 ________________________ – individuals are adapted; using what they have; doing the best with
what they have.
 New ________________________ can appear in a population or a ________________________ over time.
 Examples:
 ________________________
 Over time the ________________________ favored by Natural Selection ________________________ so that
some members in the population are no longer able to breed with other members of a
population and produce viable (possible) offspring.
 ________________________ – a group of closely ________________________ organisms that are very
________________________ to each other and are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile
________________________.
 Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
 ________________________ ________________________ states that allele
frequencies will remain ________________________, or have genetic
equilibrium unless factors cause those frequencies to change.
 5 conditions in which evolution will NOT happen:

________________________________– no picking characteristics of each other.

________________________ – adding & subtracting genes (change in gene pool)

________________________ – consists of all genes, including all the different alleles, that are
present in a population.

________________________ ________________________ – predators eating anything, bad storm=chance of
survival, parasites, competition.

________________________ ________________________ – occurs when removed or added through
immigration, emmigration.

________________________ ________________________– if a change occurs it’s not as noticeable.
 Evidence of Evolution
 ________________________ ________________________ suggests that each species has ________________________,
with ________________________, from other species over time.
 This idea suggests that all living species are ________________________ ________________________, and that all
species, living and extinct, share a ________________________ ________________________.
 ________________________ ________________________
 In artificial selection, ________________________ provides ________________________ through
________________________ and ________________________ ________________________

and ________________________ ________________________ those traits they find ________________________.
Examples:
 Fossil record

The Fossil record – ________________________ are the
________________________________________________ found in layers of rock in Earth.

The layers of rock tell the history of the ________________________, while
________________________ found within the rock tell a history of

________________________.
The fossils are thought to be the ________________________ as the rock they are found in.
 ________________________ ________________________
 If Darwin’s theory is correct you would expect to find ________________________
________________________ yet ________________________ ________________________ living in a
________________________ region as they spread into nearby habitats and evolve.

Tortoises adapted to different habitats as they spread from the mainland to the different
islands.
= ________________________ ________________________ =
________________________ ________________________
 If Darwin’s theory is correct you would also expect to
find ________________________ ________________________ living
in ________________________ geographic regions but similar
habitats becoming ________________________ as they adapt

to ________________________ ________________________.
Whales and sharks have a ________________________ body
design even though they are very ________________________ organisms (one is a fish; the other is a
mammal) because they have ________________________ ________________________ to living in a
________________________ environment. = ________________________ ________________________

________________________ ________________________
 ________________________ ________________________
 Homologous body structures – Structures, like limbs of
vertebrates, look ________________________, but are made from the
________________________ ________________________, because they are
made from the same clump of ________________________ cells in the
________________________.

Some ________________________ ________________________ are
________________________ and have no useful function even though they are still
present, like ________________________ in whales and boa constrictors.
 ________________________
 Early stages or ________________________ of many
animals with backbones (vertebrates) are very
similar – suggesting that organisms share a
________________________ ________________________.