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Name ______________________________________ Date _________________________ Block __________ Darwin’s Theory of Evolution The Puzzle of Life’s Diversity Define the following: Evolution – Theory – Fossil – The total variety of all the organisms in the biosphere is _________________________. The person who contributed to most to our understanding of evolution was ________________________ ________________________. In 1831, at age 22, he joined the crew of the ________________________ as a naturalist for a ________________________ voyage around the world. During his travels, Darwin wrote thousands of pages in his journals, drew pictures of things he saw, and collect a vast amount of ________________________ that led him to propose a ________________________ ________________________ about the way ________________________ ________________________. Darwin observed many ________________________. He saw that many plants and animals were very well suited to their ________________________. Darwin collected ________________________, or the preserves of ancient organisms. Some of the fossils were unlike any creatures he had ever seen. Darwin wondered why the species in the fossils had disappeared. Darwin wondered? Why do Argentina and Australia have ________________________ ________________________even though they have ________________________ ________________________ ________________________? Why are there no ________________________ in Australia and no ________________________ in England? Why have so many species disappeared? How are these ________________________ species ________________________ to living species? Who was Charles Darwin? While on his voyage around the world aboard the ________________________, Charles Darwin spent about one month observing life on the ________________________ ________________________. There, he encountered some unique animals, such as ________________________ and ________________________. The Galapagos Island are close together but have very different ________________________. Some were hot and dry, with little vegetation. Others had more rainfall and were rich in vegetation. Each island had its own ________________________ ________________________ of plant and animal species. Darwin’s observation on the Galapagos Islands (group of small islands west of South America) influenced him the most. Darwin saw that the ________________________ of many animals and plants ________________________ noticeably among the different islands. He wondered whether animals on different islands had once belonged to the ________________________ ________________________. According to this hypothesis, these ________________________ ________________________ would have ________________________ from an original ancestor species after becoming ________________________ from one another. After his voyage, Darwin spent a great deal of time thinking about his findings. He began to wonder if animals living on different islands had once been members of the ________________________ ________________________ that had developed ________________________ characteristics after becoming ________________________ from one another in different habitats. Ideas that Shaped Darwin’s Thinking ________________________ and ________________________ helped scientists recognize that Earth is many million years old, and that it changed over time. These ideas helped Darwin realize that ________________________ might ________________________ as well. Knowing that Earth was very old convinced Darwin that there had been ________________________________________________. ________________________ ________________________ observed that babies were being born faster than people were dying. He reasoned that if the human population continued to grow, sooner or later there would be Darwin thought this was true for all ________________________. ________________________________________________was one of the first scientists to recognize living things ________________________________________________and that all species were ________________________ from other species. Lamark published his hypothesis of ________________________________________________ the year Darwin was born. What’s wrong with Lamark’s hypothesis? Lamark didn’t know about genes and how traits are ________________________. Lamarck proposed that by ________________________ use or disuse of organs, organisms ________________________ or ________________________ certain traits during their life time. These traits could then be passed on to their offspring. Over time, this process led to change in ________________________. Scientists now know that some of Lamarck’s ideas were wrong. (You can’t control what traits are passed on to the next generation) What’s right with Lamark’s hypothesis? Lamark was first to develop a scientific hypothesis about ________________________ and recognize that organisms are ________________________________________________. Darwin Presents his Case After Darwin returned to England in 1836 he filled notebooks with ideas about ________________________ ________________________and the process he would later call ________________________. He did not rush to publish his ideas because they ________________________ with the fundamental scientific ________________________ of his day. In 1858 another naturalist, ________________________________________, wrote an essay describing his work in ________________________ that summarized the same ideas ________________________ had been thinking about for 25 years. Darwin’s observations led him to develop the scientific ________________________ ________________________, which explains how modern organisms ________________________ over long periods of time by ________________________ ________________________. In 1859, Darwin published his work, ________________________________________. What was Darwin’s Theory? His ______________________________________ included the following components: ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ - a species produce more offspring than can survive. Examples: ________________________________________________ – organisms in a population compete for scarce resources. Examples: ________________________ – members of a population differ from each other. Variation provides the “________________________” for evolution. Helps a ________________________ survive in response to change. Traits ________________________ in a habitat or different traits are ________________________. Examples: Genetically speaking ________________________ is a change in the frequency of ________________________ in a ________________________ over time. Three sources of ________________________ ________________________: ________________________ – change in genetic material of a cell. Short-term results – most don’t show up in the next generation Long-term results – introduce new genes to the population. ________________________ ________________________ – result of meiosis Short-term results – one generation to the next see difference in phenotype that affect underlying genotypes. Long-term results – not adding different genes to the population ________________________ ________________________ – passing of genes from one organism to another (not including offspring) ________________________ ________________________ – individual organisms with characteristics more ________________________ to their ________________________ are more likely to ________________________ and ________________________ and pass characteristics to the next ________________________. How Natural Selection works ________________________ – individuals are adapted; using what they have; doing the best with what they have. New ________________________ can appear in a population or a ________________________ over time. Examples: ________________________ Over time the ________________________ favored by Natural Selection ________________________ so that some members in the population are no longer able to breed with other members of a population and produce viable (possible) offspring. ________________________ – a group of closely ________________________ organisms that are very ________________________ to each other and are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile ________________________. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium ________________________ ________________________ states that allele frequencies will remain ________________________, or have genetic equilibrium unless factors cause those frequencies to change. 5 conditions in which evolution will NOT happen: ________________________________– no picking characteristics of each other. ________________________ – adding & subtracting genes (change in gene pool) ________________________ – consists of all genes, including all the different alleles, that are present in a population. ________________________ ________________________ – predators eating anything, bad storm=chance of survival, parasites, competition. ________________________ ________________________ – occurs when removed or added through immigration, emmigration. ________________________ ________________________– if a change occurs it’s not as noticeable. Evidence of Evolution ________________________ ________________________ suggests that each species has ________________________, with ________________________, from other species over time. This idea suggests that all living species are ________________________ ________________________, and that all species, living and extinct, share a ________________________ ________________________. ________________________ ________________________ In artificial selection, ________________________ provides ________________________ through ________________________ and ________________________ ________________________ and ________________________ ________________________ those traits they find ________________________. Examples: Fossil record The Fossil record – ________________________ are the ________________________________________________ found in layers of rock in Earth. The layers of rock tell the history of the ________________________, while ________________________ found within the rock tell a history of ________________________. The fossils are thought to be the ________________________ as the rock they are found in. ________________________ ________________________ If Darwin’s theory is correct you would expect to find ________________________ ________________________ yet ________________________ ________________________ living in a ________________________ region as they spread into nearby habitats and evolve. Tortoises adapted to different habitats as they spread from the mainland to the different islands. = ________________________ ________________________ = ________________________ ________________________ If Darwin’s theory is correct you would also expect to find ________________________ ________________________ living in ________________________ geographic regions but similar habitats becoming ________________________ as they adapt to ________________________ ________________________. Whales and sharks have a ________________________ body design even though they are very ________________________ organisms (one is a fish; the other is a mammal) because they have ________________________ ________________________ to living in a ________________________ environment. = ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ Homologous body structures – Structures, like limbs of vertebrates, look ________________________, but are made from the ________________________ ________________________, because they are made from the same clump of ________________________ cells in the ________________________. Some ________________________ ________________________ are ________________________ and have no useful function even though they are still present, like ________________________ in whales and boa constrictors. ________________________ Early stages or ________________________ of many animals with backbones (vertebrates) are very similar – suggesting that organisms share a ________________________ ________________________.