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Transcript
Massach
usetts
Massachu
setts Ins
Institute of Technolo
Technology
Harva
Harvarrd Me
Medical
dical School
hool
Brig
ham
m an
Brigha
and Women
men’s Ho
Hospital
VA Bo
thca
are Sy
Boston Heal
Healthc
System
2.782J/3.961J/BEH.451J/HST524J
TISSUE ENGINEERING
II. Scaffolds
M. Spector, Ph.D.
ELEMENTS* OF TISSUE ENGINEERING/
REGENERATIVE MEDICINE
• MATRIX (SCAFFOLD)
– Porous, absorbable synthetic or natural polymers
• CELLS (Autologous or Allogeneic)
– Differentiated cells of same type as tissue
– Stem cells (e.g., bone marrow-derived)
– Other cell types (e.g., dermal cells)
• REGULATORS
– Growth factors or their genes
– Mechanical loading
– Static versus dynamic culture (“bioreactor”)
* Used individually or in combinatio
n
combination
Page 1
TISSUE ENGINEERING
The Role of Biomaterials
• Tissue engineering is proving to be a revolution in
biomaterials.
• In the last century biomaterials were used for the
fabrication of permanent implants to replace tissue
function (e.g., total joint replacement prostheses).
• In this century the principal role of biomaterials
will likely be to serve as scaffolds/matrices for tissue
engineering and cell and gene therapies.
• The challenge in developing biomaterials as
scaffolds for tissue engineering appears to exceed
the challenges in the recombinant production of
growth factors, and cell and gene therapies.
ROLES OF THE BIOMATERIALS/
SCAFFOLDS (MATRICES)
1) the scaffold serves as a framew
ork to support cell migration
framework
into the defect from surrounding tissues; especially important
when a fibrin clot is absent.
2) serves as a delivery vehicle
vehicle for exogenous cells, growth
growth
factor
factors, and genes; larg
largee surface area.
3) before it is absorbed a scaffold
scaffold can serve as a matrix for
for cell
adhesion to facilitate/“
facilitate/“regula
regulate”
te” certain unit cell processes
(e.g.,
e.g., mitosis, synthesis, migration) of cells in vi
vivo or for
for cells
seeded in vi
vitro.
tro.
a) the biom
aterial
al may have ligands for cell receptors (integrins)
biomateri
b) the biom
aterial
bioma
erial may
may sele
selectively
ely adso
adsorb adhesion
dhesion prote
proteiins to
to which
cells can
can bi
bind
4) may structurally reinforce the defect
defect to maintain
maintain the shape of
the defect and prevent distortion of surrounding tissue.
5) serves as a barrier to prevent the infiltra
tion of surrounding
infiltration
tissue that may impede
impede the
the process
process of regeneration.
regeneration.
Page 2
Membrane for
Guided Tissue
Regeneration
Crown
GTR membrane
Tooth
Root
Defect
Gingiva
Alveolar
Bone
Periodontal Ligament
SCAFFOLDS
Concepts Guiding the Developmen
Development of Scaffold
Scaffolds
Biomaterals
• Existing safe (“
(“biocompatible”
biocompatible”) absorbable materials; PLA
PLA-PGA
• Natural extracel
extracellular
lular matrix
matrix mater
materiials; bone mineral
mineral
• Biomimetics and analogs of extra
n and
extracellular
ellular mat
matrix;
ix; collage
collagen
collagen
collagen--hydroxyapatite scaffolds
• Biopolymers for nanoscale
ing peptides
nanoscale matrix
matrix;; selfself-assembly
assemblying
• New types of biomaterials designed specifically for tissue
engineering scaffolds
Methods of Scaffold Production
• Prec
Precision
ision (computer)
(computer) mu
multilti-scal
scale control
control of material
material,
architecture, and cells;
cells solid free-form fabrication technologies
Page 3
PROPERTIES OF MATRICES
Change of Properties with Degradation
• Physical
– Overall size and shape
– Pore characteristics: % porosity, pore size
distribution, interconnectivity, pore orientation
• Chemical
– Biodegradability and moieties released; degradation
rate synchronized to the formation rate
– Provide or bind ligands that affect cell function
• Mechanical
– Strength (and related prop., e.g., wear resistance)
– Modulus of elasticity; stiffness
• Electrical and Optical ?
MATRIX (SCAFFOLD) MATERIALS
• Synthetic Polymers
– e.g., polylactic and polyglycolic acid
– self-assembling proteins
– many others
• Natural Polymers
– fibrin
– collagen
– collagen-glycosaminoglycan copolymer
– many others
Page 4
SCAFFOLD (MATRIX) MATERIALS
Synthetic
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Polylactic acid and polyglycolic acid
Polycarbonates
Polydioxanones
Polyphosphazenes
Poly(anhydrides)
Poly(ortho esters)
Poly(propylene fumarate)
Pluronic (polaxomers)
– Poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene
oxide)
SCAFFOLD (MATRIX) MATERIALS
Natural
• Collagen
–Gelatin and fibrillar sponge
–Non-cross-linked and cross-linked
• Collagen-GAG copolymer
• Albumin
• Fibrin
• Hyaluronic acid
• Cellulose
–Most abundant natural polymer
–Mechanism of absorbability in vivo?
Page 5
SCAFFOLD (MATRIX) MATERIALS
Natural (Continued)
• Chitosan
–Derived from chitin, 2nd most abundant natural
polymer
–Mechanism of absorbability in vivo?
• Polyhydroxalkanoates
–Naturally occurring polyesters produced by
fermentation
• Alginate (polysaccharide extracted from
seaweed)
• Agarose
• Polyamino acids
SCAFFOLDS
•
•
•
•
Structure/Architecture
Fiber mesh
Sponge-like
Fine filament mesh
Architecture by design; Free Form
Fabrication/3-D printing
Page 6
SCAFFOLDS
Structure/Architecture
• Percentage porosity
– number of cells that can be contained
– strength of the material
• Pore diameter
– surface area and the number of adherent cells
– ability of cells to infiltrate the pores
• Orientation of pores
– can direct cell growth
• Overall shape of the device needs to fit the defect
SCAFFOLDS
•
•
•
•
•
•
Methods for Producing Scaffolds*
Treat tissues/organs to remove selected
components
Fibers (non-woven and woven)
Freeze-drying
Incorporate porogens into polymers
Self-assemblying molecules
Free-form manufacturing
* Need to consider the advantages
advantages and disadvantages
disadvantages
with respect to the production
production of scaffolds
scaffolds wi
with
selected chemical composition
composition and structure
Page 7
DE-ORGANIFIED BOVINE
TRABECULAR BONE
Natural Bone Mineral
Photo removed due to copyright restrictions.
Langer and Freed
Fiber
mesh;
PLA-PGA
Scaffold Structures
Yan
3-D printed
10µm
Cui
Yannas
Fine filament mesh;
Self-assembled peptide
Sponge-like;
Collagen and Collagen/HA
Zhang
1 µm
100 µm
Images removed due to copyright restrictions.
Page 8
COLLAGEN-GAG SCAFFOLDS
• Type I (bovine and porcine)
• Type II (porcine)
• Chondroitin 6-sulfate
1mm
• Freeze-dried
• Dehydrothermally cross-linked
• Additional cross-linking
500µm
IV Yannas, et al. PNAS, 1989
Scaffold Structures:
Pore Orientation
(Yannas)
Page 9
Micro CT; Neg. Image
228 ±39 µm
BIOMANUFACTURING
BIOMANUFACTURI
NG:
BIOMANUFACTURING:
A USUS-CHINA NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION­
FOUNDATIONSPONSORED WORKSHOP
June 2929-July 1, 2005, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
W. Sun,
Sun, Y. Yan
Yan, F.
F. Lin, and M. Specto
Spectorr
New
New technologies
technologies for producing scaffolds wi
with precision
precision
(computer(computer-controlled) multimulti- scale co
control of mater
materiial,
architecture, and cells.
www.mem.drexel.edu/biomanufacturing/index.htm
Tiss.
Tiss. Engr.,
Engr., In Press
Page 10
3-D Printing
Solid Free-Form Fabrication
Technologies
Multiple inkjet heads; print cells as
cells aggregates or individual cells
Fused Deposition Modeling
Figures removed due to copyright restrictions.
1) Single-nozzle deposition using polylactic acid and tricalcium phosphate.
See Yan, Yongnian, et al. "Layered manufacturing of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds via Multi-nozzle Deposition."
Materials Letters 57 (2003): 2623-2628.
2) Hepatocyte/gelatin/sodium alginate construct.
See Yan, Yongnian, et al. "Fabrication of Viable Tissue-engineering Constructs with 3D Cell-assembly Technique."
Biomaterials 26 (2005): 5864-5871.
3) Printing single cells, cell aggregates, and the supportive biodegradable thermosensitive gel according to a
computer-generated template.
See Mironov, Vladimir, et al. "Organ Printing: Computer-aided Jet-based 3D Tissue Engineering." TRENDS in
Biotechnology 21, no. 4 (April 2003).