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2/27/12 - Bellringer
 What is the
joke in this
Atomic Structure Review
 Atoms are
made up of
neutrons, and
 Individually,
atoms have the
same number
of p+ and e-
Atomic Structure Review
 If an element has 8 protons, how many
electrons does it have?
 If an element has 53 electrons, how
many protons does it have?
Atomic Structure Review
 The number of electrons in an atoms
valence shell is NOT the total number of
electrons in that atom (except for H and
 Valence shell = outer electron shell
22.2 Notes –
Types of Bonds
 Describe ionic and covalent bonds
An atom that has lost or gained
charged particle because it has
more or fewer electrons than protons
Atoms lose or gain to meet a
standard—a stable energy level
 Sports drinks – Electrolytes = ions in found in
How bonds form
The positive and negative
charges are not balanced on
their own
It is the electric forces between
oppositely charged particles that
hold compounds together
A Bond Forms - KI
A neutral atom of potassium has
one electron in its outer level
 Not
a stable outer energy level
Potassium often forms
compounds with halogens
 Alkalis
(Group 1) often form
compounds with Halogens
(Group 17 / 7A)
Potassium atom has become
an ion
 Loses
an electron (drops one
energy level), becomes positively
 One less electron in the atom
than protons in the nucleus
Ion = K+
The 1+ charge is shown as a
superscript written after the element’s
symbol to indicate its charge
Iodine atom also undergoes a
 Iodine
has 7 electrons in its outer
energy level
 Iodine atom wants to gain an
electron to fill its outer energy
 No longer neutral because it has
gained an extra negative particle
Has a charge of –1 and is called
a iodide ion, written as I-
 Cation = positive ion
Loses electrons
 Anion = negative ion
Gains electrons
Potassium iodide
Ionic Bonds
 When ions attract due to their opposite
 In an ionic bond a transfer of one or more
electrons takes place and large amounts of
energy are released
If an element loses electrons, one or more
elements must gain an equal number of
electrons to maintain the neutral charge
Formation of Ionic Bond
 Magnesium reacts with chlorine
 Magnesium atom loses 2 electrons and becomes
a positively charged ion, Mg2+
 Two chlorine atoms gain one electron each and
become negatively charged ions, Cl-
Ionic Bonds
 Zero net charge = Neutral compound
Positive charge balances with negative
 Metal + nonmetal
 Elements on opposite sides of periodic