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Transcript
How Evolution Generates
“Endless Forms, Most Beautiful”
Part 1: Improbable Foundations
Marc Presler
Peter Yang
Elizabeth Brown
Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons, User: Holek, Iietunic, LadyOfHats
What’s in store…
Part 1: Improbable Foundations
Marc Presler
Part 2: Evolution and Development
Peter Yang
Part 3: Human Genetics and Evolution
Elizabeth Brown
Evolution
The common
ancestor
Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons, User: Holek, Shyama, Andreas Plank
“There is grandeur in this view of life...
that from so simple a beginning
endless forms most beautiful
and most wonderful have been,
and are being, evolved.”
-Charles Darwin, concluding
The Origin of Species
Image Credit: Fair use- Kutelo
Evolution: deeply counterintuitive
and publically controversial…
The common
ancestor
Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons, User: Sting. Fair Use: Reuters, Paolo Neo, Jim Mahoney
Evolution:
How?
The common
ancestor
Nature follows “rules”
“Water flows downhill.”
Image Credit:Simon Ledingham, cc by-nc-nd B. Monginoux, Grozdanov, ImagesFromBulgaria.com, freeaussiestock.com, Hans
Nature follows “rules”
The common ancestor
Image Credit: Wikimages
The 4 “Rules” of Evolution
• Variation
Image Credit: http://okhoa.org
The 4 “Rules” of Evolution
• Variation
• Emerge
Image Credit: Fair use, Wolfman, buy.com
The 4 “Rules” of Evolution
• Variation
• Emerge
• Success
The 4 “Rules” of Evolution
• Variation
• Emerge
• Success
• Pass on
The 4 “Rules” of Evolution
• Variation
• Emerge
• Success
• Pass on
Evolution: simply change over time
• Occurs at the population level
• If ANYTHING is different from one generation to
the next…
Emerge
Mix
Lose
Natural Selection: When traits becomes
more common because they confer specific
reproductive advantages.
Fitness: to Survive AND Reproduce
Image Credit: Fair use, FuriousNick
Evolution: simply change over time
– Natural Selection, when change is more
‘fit’
• Fitness: Survive AND Reproduce
Adaptations are traits that increase fitness.
Not all evolution is driven by adaptation.
Emerge
Mix
Lose
Fitness is relative to environment.
Image Credit: Fair use, <a href="http://public-domain.zorger.com" title="public domain images">public-domain.zorger.com</a>
Members of a species compete with each
other.
Image Credit: free-desktop-backgrounds.net, cc- kylielovestrees
Populations evolve.
develop.
Organisms
Peter’s
talk!
Questions?
Lose
Common Descent
The common
ancestor
Common Descent
Sorry Dad!
The common
ancestor
Common Descent
Bonobo
Photo Credit USAID
Human
Chimpanzee
Photo Credit Ikiwaner
Photo Credit
Public Domain
Liz’s Talk!
Common Ancestor
(6 million years ago)
Evolution is reactive, not proactive
• Modifying “on the shelf” technology
“It is not the strongest of the
species that survives…but
the one most responsive to
change.”
– Charles Darwin
Genes and evolution
• Genes are what get physically passed on
and modified
– Variation is differences in those genes
Enzymes, like lactase
Codes
for
Hormones, like estrogen
and other cellular level functions
Genes and evolution
• From large to small…
Genes
Cells
Organism
Photo Credit
Public Domain
Populations
Questions?
The common ancestor
Genes at the population level
They’re magically… scrumptious!
©
Lose
Image Credit: Origin of Species
Genes at the population level
They’re magically… scrumptious!
©
Image Credit: http://www.wpclipart.com
Genes at the population level
Good morning!
Genes at the population level
Any change is
evolution.
Genes at the population level
“Not all evolution
is adaptive.”
Lose
Where are the super organisms?
Image Credit: Fair use, FuriousNick
Where are the super organisms?
• Physical constraints
Image Credit: cc by-Grozdanov, ImagesFromBulgaria.com
Where are the super organisms?
• Everything is always changing…
• Many times it’s hard enough just to stay
alive.
“The Struggle of Life…
“There is grandeur in this view of life...
that from so simple a beginning…
endless forms most beautiful and most
wonderful have been, and are being,
evolved.”
“The Struggle of Life… the production
of…animals directly follows…”
“There is grandeur in this view of life...
that from so simple a beginning…
endless forms most beautiful and most
wonderful have been, and are being,
evolved.”
The common ancestor
Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons, User:Iietunic, LadyOfHats