From Darwinian Metaphysics towards Understanding the Evolution
... topics I became increasingly aware that this metaphysic is present in many other
subject areas as well, such as the theory of science or of economics. Furthermore,
across the globe it seems to have played a crucial role in the neo-liberal policies of
unconstrained market-competition and privatisatio ...
Recurrent gene duplication leads to diverse repertoires of
... providing the foundation for genetic inheritance. Paradoxically, centromeric proteins
evolve rapidly despite being essential in many organisms. We have previously proposed
that this rapid evolution is due to genetic conflict in female meiosis in which centromere
alleles of varying strength compete f ...
... • Connecting evolution and life-span
– Benefits conferred by evolutionary selection
decrease with age
– Natural selection primarily operates during the
first half of life
arXiv:1004.1028v1 [q-bio.PE] 7 Apr 2010
... threshold; and iii) these selective cis-regulatory adjustments have been performed at all NEEs across
a given genome, as would be expected if they are
all co-evolving to a common change in the transmorphogen gradient . While this study identified
a heritable feature that encodes different respons ...
Philosophy of Biology: A Contemporary Introduction
... Is life a purely physical process? Does the theory of natural selection conﬂict
with theism and, if so, how can we rationally choose between them? What is
human nature? Which of our traits are essential to us?
Biology is the branch of science most immediately relevant to many distinctively human con ...
Transformations of Lamarckism
... thought, whereas the generation of developmental variations is central to Lamarckian thought. In the early twentieth century Delage and Goldsmith were already
explaining what the Lamarckian stance is by contrasting it with neo-Darwinism,
formulated as a challenge to the logic and relevance of Lamarc ...
AP Lab Review
... (p,q) should be the same from generation to
generation (H-W equilibrium)
Analyze genetic drift and the effect of
selection on a given population
Manipulate parameters in model:
Population size, selection (fitness),
mutation, migration, genetic drift
BUTTERFLY WING PATTERNS: Developmental Mechanisms and
... of the pattern elements (which are black and, in some cases, red) and considerable fusion
between them. In this case, the wing pattern of a species, such as H. melpomene, would
appear as large (but composite) areas of black, between which small windows of the yellow
or white wing background would re ...
... embryo at this stage of development. Obviously, the heart must shift posteriorly to the thoracic
region. This will occur primarily through an elongation of the head and neck regions. Look for the
large vitelline veins coming in from the extraembryonic regions and entering the posterior chamber of
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... Fig. 1. Generalized anatomy of an enteropneust hemichordate. The body of an enteropneust is
divided into three regions. Each body cavity or coelom, shaded in blue, is lined by mesoderm (So,
somatopleura or outer lining; Sp, splanchnopleura or inner lining). The most anterior region is the
- Journal of Clinical Investigation
... rate of fertilization in humans has contributed to sustained
increases in the world population and added urgency to the
need to develop new, effective contraceptive agents. For some,
however, the success rate is considerably lower, and there are
millions of infertile couples in the United States. Dr ...
Dorsoventral Patterning in Hemichordates
... developing embryos. Paradoxically, this conservation of axial
patterning provides the developmental platform for astonishing anatomical and physiological diversiﬁcation both within
and between phyla. Clearly a major step in the evolution of
bilateral animals was the origination of these domain maps
Palaeos Invertebrates: Cnidaria
... All the metabolic functions of the body - respiration, digestion, elimination - are carried out by diffusion. Diffusion is
only an efficient means of exchange of materials only over short distances (e.g. over about 1 mm for oxygen
exchange). This means that all the tissues of a cnidarian which requi ...
... The SE functions of a trait are those CR functions of the same trait in ancestors which
caused it to be selected.
In this paper, I argue that much functional language in biology refers to CR function.
Furthermore, enthusiasts for SE function are mistaken when they claim that SE function
is the prima ...
natural selection and heredity
... gradually over many generations from a simple structure or organisation to a more complex and perfect one. Over and above this, he
noted that organs which are much used tend to become larger and
more highly developed as the result of this use, compared with those
in an individual in which they are n ...
WHAT GOOD IS GENOMIC IMPRINTING: THE FUNCTION OF
... without a need to invoke their status as innocent
bystanders18,20. The OTB has, therefore, been shown to
entail no logical contradictions, if the assumptions of
the hypothesis are met. The OTB can also predict the
directionality that is observed in the growth-related
effects of maternally silenced a ...
Evolution, Science, and Society: Evolutionary Biology
... Biological evolution consists of change in the hereditary characteristics of groups of organisms
over the course of generations. Groups of organisms, termed populations and species, are formed
by the division of ancestral populations or species, and the descendant groups then change
independently. H ...
- Megan Woolfit
... Abstract.—The reliability of molecular clocks has been questioned for several key evolutionary radiations on the basis that
the clock might run fast in explosive radiations. Molecular date estimates for the radiations of metazoan phyla (the Cambrian
explosion) and modern orders of mammals and birds ...
Full Text PDF - Edorium™ Journal of Anatomy and Embryology
... branching, and form the respiratory tree through the
terminal bronchioles by the end of the canalicular stage.
During the sacular stage, the bronchioles divide into the
respiratory bronchioles and eventually into the terminal
sacs (also termed primitive alveoli). Around week 36, the
terminal sacs be ...
Evolution and development of shape: integrating
... influence the development of morphological traits is the
subject of a long-standing debate in biology. In particular, a central question for evo-devo is how development
translates genomic variation into the shape variation that
is available for evolution by selection or drift.
Quantifying total gene ...
Genome size and intron size in Drosophila
... the paucity of pseudogenes in Drosophila is the product
of rampant deletion of DNA in regions not subjected to
selective constraints, and they further extrapolated that
different deletion rates may contribute to the divergence
in genome size among taxa.
Their assumption is that such a high rate of d ...
Forces that influence the evolution of codon bias
... amino acids where it is expected that the same codon
would always be favoured by selection. For example,
the only Phe tRNA genes known across bacteria have
GAA at the anticodon site, and so UUC is always
expected to be favoured over UUU, when selection is
effective. Similarly, for Tyr, Asn and Ile, ...
Factors and Natural Selection To Identify Virulence : Genetic
... selection. In this paper we describe how the results of evolutionary processes, as reflected by bacterial population characteristics, may be used to identify potential bacterial virulence
factors. We use Haemophilus influenzae, whose known virulence factors are highly variable, as an example.
Macrotrachela quadricornifera featured in a space experiment
... Most rotifers lay unsegmented eggs that undergo a
modiﬁed spiral pattern of cleavage with a mosaic
determinative development where each blastomere
is committed early to a given fate (e.g., Gilbert,
1989). Our knowledge of the pattern of embryo
development of rotifers, and of bdelloids in particular, ...
Evolutionary developmental biology
Evolutionary developmental biology (evolution of development or informally, evo-devo) is a field of biology that compares the developmental processes of different organisms to determine the ancestral relationship between them, and to discover how developmental processes evolved. It addresses the origin and evolution of embryonic development; how modifications of development and developmental processes lead to the production of novel features, such as the evolution of feathers; the role of developmental plasticity in evolution; how ecology impacts development and evolutionary change; and the developmental basis of homoplasy and homology.Although interest in the relationship between ontogeny and phylogeny extends back to the nineteenth century, the contemporary field of evo-devo has gained impetus from the discovery of genes regulating embryonic development in model organisms. General hypotheses remain hard to test because organisms differ so much in shape and form.Nevertheless, it now appears that just as evolution tends to create new genes from parts of old genes (molecular economy), evo-devo demonstrates that evolution alters developmental processes to create new and novel structures from the old gene networks (such as bone structures of the jaw deviating to the ossicles of the middle ear) or will conserve (molecular economy) a similar program in a host of organisms such as eye development genes in molluscs, insects, and vertebrates. Initially the major interest has been in the evidence of homology in the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate body plan and organ development. However, subsequent approaches include developmental changes associated with speciation.