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Synthesis of Fats, Proteins, and Carbohydrates Lab Purpose: To visualize the synthesis of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates Materials: printed instructions, printed drawings of molecules (cut-outs), 3 blank sheets of paper, scissors, glue Procedure: 1. Color all pieces according to the following color code: a. Glycerol: orange b. Fatty acid: yellow (3 pieces) c. Water molecules (O-H and H): blue d. Amino acids: green e. Simple sugar: red 2. Make a fat: a. Find all the pieces that make up a fat (1 orange glycerol molecule and 3 yellow fatty acid pieces) b. Cut out all the pieces of a fat c. Construct a fatty acid and glue it onto a piece of construction paper (look in the book if you need help figuring out how to put it together) d. When a fat is made, 3 water molecules are also made (this is called a condensation reaction). Make the 3 water molecules by cutting out and gluing together the one H-H-H piece with three O-H pieces. Make sure to glue this piece onto the same sheet as the fat. e. Label your paper “Fat or Lipid” 3. Make a protein: a. Find all the pieces that make up a protein (3 green amino acids) b. Cut out all the pieces of a protein c. Construct a protein (made of all three amino acids put together) and glue it onto the construction paper d. Like a fat, when a protein is made, water is made again! This time though, only 2 molecules of water are made. Make the 2 water molecules by cutting out and gluing together the two H pieces with two O-H pieces. Make sure to glue this piece onto the same sheet as the protein. e. When a protein is made, a peptide bond (C-N) is formed. Show this by circling the bond (C-N) between each amino acid (you will have two peptide bonds to circle) f. Label your paper “Protein” 4. Make two carbohydrates: a. Find all the pieces that make up each carbohydrate i. Glucose + fructose ii. Glucose + glucose + glucose b. Cut out all the pieces of a carbohydrate c. Construct each carbohydrate *The first carbohydrate will be glucose + fructose *The second carbohydrate will be glucose + glucose + glucose *Next to the second carbohydrate add a series of dots ( . . .) to show that in a real carbohydrate the glucoses would just keep adding on to make a larger polymer. d. Like a fat and a protein, when a carbohydrate is made, water is made again! This time though, 3 molecules of water are made. Make the 3 water molecules by cutting out and gluing together the three H pieces with three O-H pieces. Make sure to glue this piece onto the same sheet as the carbohydrates. e. Label your paper “Carbohydrates” Helpful hints: You will end up with one extra H molecule piece. You may discard it. One of your water molecules will not fit together perfectly - this is normal. Do not cut out everything at once. It is much easier to keep track of all the pieces if you only cut out what you need for one macromolecule at a time.