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Transcript
Electrostatics
What is Electrostatics?
Electrostatics
is the study of the
interactions between stationary electrically
charged particles.
Electrostatic laws deal with the attractive
and repelling forces that exist between
positive and negative electric charges.
Four Fundamental Forces
Strong Force
Electromagnetic Force
Weak Nuclear Force
Gravitational Force
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5HLTHrcnO74
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U0kXkWXSXRA&app=desktop
SI unit of Charge: the Coulomb
• SI unit for charge is the coulomb, and its
symbol is C.
• A coulomb is a fairly large amount of
charge, so sometimes we measure small
amounts of charge in μC
• An electron has a charge of -1.6  10-19 C.
• A proton has a charge of +1.6  10-19 C.
• In a wire, if one coulomb of charge flows
past a point in one second, we say the
current in the wire is one ampere.
Elementary Charge
• Charges come in small, discrete bundles
(quantized). This means an object can
possess charge in incremental, rather than
continuous, amounts.
• The smallest amount of charge that can be
added or removed from an object is the
elementary charge, e = 1.6  10-19 C.
• The charge of a proton is +e, an electron -e.
• The charge of an object, Q, is always a
multiple of this elementary charge: Q = Ne,
where N is an integer.
What is Net Charge?
Net charge is the amount of excess
charge; a neutral object has an equal
number of electrons and protons,
and therefore, no net charge.
No Net Charge
Positive Net Charge
A negatively charged object has:
(a) Only positive charges.
(b) Only negative charges.
(c) More positive charges than negative.
(d) More negative charges than positive.
A negatively charged object has:
(d) More negative charges than
positive.
JUST BECAUSE AN OBJECT IS
NEGATIVELY CHARGED DOES
NOT MEAN IT HAS NO PROTONS
.
• Charged particles exert forces on each other.
• The MORE charge (meaning more protons,
and/or more electrons), the BIGGER the
forces…
A clump of six protons is separated from an electron by
distance D. A clump of 18 protons is also separated
from an electron by distance D. Which clump exerts a
greater force on the electron?
+++
+++
+
+
+++
+
+ ++++++
++++
+
D
D
Practice Problem
A metal sphere has a net charge of –2.4 x
10-6 C. How many excess electrons does
the sphere contain?
Practice Problem
A metal sphere has a net charge of –2.4 x
10-6 C. How many excess electrons does
the sphere contain? GIVEN:
Q = -2.4 x 10-6 C
-e = -1.6 x 10-19 C
#electrons = ???
Practice Problem
A metal sphere has a net charge of –2.4 x
10-6 C. How many excess electrons does
the sphere contain? GIVEN:
Q = -2.4 x 10-6 C
-e = -1.6 x 10-19 C
#electrons = ???
 2.4  10
6
 1 electron 
15
C

1.5

10
electrons

19
  1.6  10 C 
Law of Conservation of Charge
Like other conservation laws, the
law of conservation of electric
charge states that the net charge
(which is basically the sum of the
charge on each proton and electron
in a system) of an isolated system
remains constant.
Conductors and Insulators
An electric conductor is a material, such as
copper, that allows for the easy movement
(conduction) of charge. In general, metals are
good electric conductors because they don’t hold
on to their electrons very tightly.
An electric insulator is a material, such as rubber,
that doesn’t allow for the easy movement of
charge.
Charges that Move
When charges move through a solid
conductor, IT IS THE NEGATIVELY
CHARGED PARTICLES, THE ELECTRONS,
THAT ARE FREE TO MOVE. The protons
are relatively bound in space:
How Might an Object
Become Charged???
Charging by Friction
Charging by Contact (Insulators
and Conductors)
Charging by Induction (Conductors
Only)
Charging by Friction
Examples
• Dragging your feet
across a carpet on
a dry day.
• Rubbing a balloon
through your hair.
Charging by Friction
Results in a transfer of
electrons between the
two objects that are
rubbed together.
Charging by Friction
Materials at top of list
have a greater affinity for
electrons.
When any two materials in
the table are rubbed
together, the one that is
higher can be expected to
pull electrons from the
material that is lower
Charging by Contact
Charging by conduction is the process of giving
an object a net electric charge by placing it in
contact with an object that is already charged.
Charging by Induction
It is possible to charge a neutral conductor
without contact:
The Electroscope
In 1748, Nollet invented one of the first
electrometers, the electroscope, which can
detect the presence of an electric field.
Insulators Can’t Be
Charged by Induction
As you might expect, insulators cannot
become charged by induction because
charged particles are not free to move
within an insulator.
However, if an insulator is in the midst of
an electric field, the individual molecules,
while not able to move freely, may orient
themselves so that there is a polarization
of charge.
What is Charge Polarization??
An unpolarized atom.
With an external electric
field, the center of electron
cloud shifts to the left, or
polarizes.
Charge Polarization
Charge Polarization
Neutral objects may be a attracted
to charged objects through charge
polarization:
Coulomb’s Law
We know that charges exert forces on other charges.
You are going to be given the means to calculate
these forces. The force (F) between two point
charges is...
•Proportional to the magnitude of each charge
•Inversely proportional to square of the separation
between their centers (r)
•Directed along the line connecting their centers
F  kC
q1 q2
r
2
kc = 8.99 x 109 N·m2/C2
Coulomb’s Law
So long as your units for charge (q) are in
coulombs, and your units for distance (r)
are in meters, your units for force will
nicely cancel out.
F  kC
q1 q2
 Nm
N
2
 C
r
2
2
 C  C 
 2 
 m 
Inverse Square Laws
q1 q2
m1 m2
Fg  G
F

k
C
2
2
r
r
r/
3
force
9F
r/
2
r
4F
F
F/4
2r
3r
F/9