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World History
Unit 1: The Rise of
Democratic Ideas
• H-SS 10.1: Students relate the moral
and ethical principles in ancient Greek
and Roman philosophy, in Judaism, and
in Christianity to the development of
Western political thought.
• CCSS. ELA-Literacy. RH.9-10.4
Determine the meaning words and
Phrases as they are used in text,
including vocabulary describing
political, social, or economic aspects
of history/social science.
Section 1 Key Terms
• Monarchy
• Democracy
• Republic
• Judaism
• Christianity
Key Terms ConT…
• Ten Commandments
• Aristocracy
• Divine Right
• Parliament
• Magna Carta
Section 1
The rise of Greek
• The Greeks built small,
independent city-states
• The most important and powerful
city-states were Sparta and
• The government started as a
Monarchy (a king or queen ruled)
• In some city-states, nobles became
powerful and began to rule
1) Strong Military
2)Training began at
age 7
3)Women expected
to give birth to
Spartan men
• In Athens the idea of Democracy,
or government by the people, first
took root
• This happened because ordinary
people were resisting the power
of the nobles
• Tyrants rose to power out of
force and supported the
merchant class and the poor
• In Athens, Cleisthenes broadened
the role of individuals in
• Cleisthenes set up a Legislature,
or law making body
• This helped move Athens towards
Comprehension Check!
Underline the name of the Greek
city-state where Democracy first
took root?
Athens in the Age of
• After winning the Persian Wars,
Athens became the most powerful
city-state in Greece
• Pericles moved the Athenian
government more towards
• He believed that all male citizens,
regardless of wealth or class
should be part of government
• Male citizens now
served in the
• Men also served
for a year on a
Jury, or group of
citizens who make
the final
judgment in a
Greek Philosophers
• Greek philosophers helped to
develop western political ideas
• Socrates was a strong defender
of Democracy
His student, Plato, feared
• He argued that the state should
control every aspect of its
citizens lives
• Plato’s student, Aristotle,
believed in the rule of law
• He believed that even rulers
should be subject to this law
• This principle lies at the heart of
all modern constitutional
Section 2
Establishing a Republic
• The Romans set up a new
government in 509 B.C.
• This new government was called a
Republic which means “Thing of
the People”
• A senate of 300 members ruled
• The senators were all patricians,
or landholding upper class
• Senators made the laws
• Each year, the senators elected two
consuls to supervise the business of
government and command the armies
• When there was a war, the senate
could choose a Dictator who would
remain in power for a maximum of 6
• The Dictator had complete control
over the government during a war
• Most Romans were common people, or
• Plebeians pushed to
have the laws
written down on 12
• They also were
allowed to elect
their own officials
called Tribunes
• Tribunes could veto
or block laws that
were not in the best
interest of the
From Republic to Empire
• Roman armies expanded the
republic’s power
• On the North coast of Africa,
Romans destroyed the city-state
of Carthage
• Roman power now extended from
Spain to Egypt
• This expansion caused conflict
such as civil war in the empire
• The issue was over who should
have the power: The senate or
individual political leaders
• In 51 B.C. Julius Caesar took
control of Rome
• Caesar kept many
features of the
republic, but
forced the
senate to make
him a Dictator
• Caesar’s enemies
feared his power
and stabbed him
to death
Comprehension Check!
Underline the name of the first
emperor of Rome?
• Caesar’s grand-nephew Octavian
became the new emperor, now
named Augustus Caesar
• During this time known as the Pax
Romana, the empire brought peace,
order, unity and wealth to the
lands it ruled
• Trade flowed freely to and from
distant lands in Africa and Asia
• Merchants would bring ivory,
gold, spices, and silk to Rome
• After the fall of the Western
Roman empire, emperor Justinian in
the eastern Byzantine empire
formed the roman law code
• The greatest legacy of Rome was
the establishment of justice
based on the law
Section 3
The Ancient Israelites
• Most of what we know about
ancient Israelites, or Jews, comes
from the Torah, their most sacred
• The story begins with a man named
• In Canaan, he founded what
became the Israelite nation
• Later, a famine
forced many
Israelites to
move to Egypt
where they were
• Moses later lead
the Israelites out
of Egypt
God’s CovenanT wiTh
the Israelites
• To the Israelites, each event in
their history reflected God’s plan
for them
• They were monotheistic, which
means the belief in one god
• Other societies at the time
worshiped many gods
– Many other ancient peoples also
invoked particular gods as special
• The Israelites believed that God made a
covenant, or promise, with Abraham
• God promised to protect the Israelites
and give them a homeland in exchange
for obeying God’s laws
• The Torah set many of these laws,
including the 10 commandments
• The first 4
commandments stress
religious duty
• One duty is to keep the
Sabbath, a holy day
for rest and worship
• The remaining
commandments set out
rules for how people
should behave toward
one another
Teachings on Law and
• Prophets interpreted God’s will
• They warned that failure to obey
God’s law would lead their people
to disaster
• Other prophets preached codes
of ethics, or standards of
• Jews believed their leaders must
also obey God’s law
Comprehension Check!
Underline What the Israelites
believed would happen if they
disobeyed God’s laws
The Scattering of the
• In 586 B.C. the Babylonian Captivity
marked the start of the diaspora, or
scattering of the Jews
• When the captivity ended, not all
Jews returned to Canaan (later
called Palestine)
• Jews and their culture spread
through the Middle East & Europe
• In 63 B.C. Rome conquered
Jerusalem, the capital city of
Section 4
Jesus of Nazareth
• During the early years of the
Roman empire, Christianity
• Their leader was a man named
• Almost all that we know about
the life of Jesus comes from the
Gospels in the New Testament
• The Gospels say that Jesus
traveled and taught ideas
throughout Israel with 12 close
followers, or Apostles
• Jesus’ teachings were rooted in
Jewish law but in new ways
• He emphasized God’s love and the
need for justice, morality, and
service to others
• Jewish leaders
were worried
Jesus would
cause a revolt
and a breakdown
of Roman Power
• He was later
arrested and
Christianity Spreads
• After Jesus’ death, his apostles
and other followers spread his
• Paul, a Jew from Asia Minor,
brought the teachings to Gentiles
(non Jews)
• The main difference between
Christianity and Judaism is
Christians focus on Jesus as the
Messiah, or savior
Comprehension Check!
Underline Who spread Jesus’
• Rome had a long history of
tolerance, or acceptance, of
different religions
• The emperor was not tolerant of
Christians however
• Christians refused to make
sacrifices to the emperor and
would not honor the Roman Gods
• The Romans persecuted the
Christians, but Christianity
continued to spread
Comprehension Check!
Underline the reason why did the
Romans not accept, or tolerate,
The Christian Church
• Gradually, the scattered
Christian communities organized a
structured church hierarchy
• It was made up of a clergy such as
priests and bishops
• During the middle ages, the
Christian church became the most
powerful force in Europe
The Judeo-Christian
• In the west, the shared heritage of
Jews and Christians is known as
the Judeo-Christian tradition
• This contains moral and ethical
principles in the Bible
• These principles are the basic
ideas behind many Western
beliefs… including fair treatment,
or justice
Comprehension Check!
Underline What was the main
difference between Christianity
and Judaism?
Section 5
Growth of Royal Power
• During the early
Middle Ages, a new
system of rule
known as feudalism
• Lesser lords
pledged loyalty to
greater lords
• The greatest lord,
the King, sat at the
top of the feudal
• When William the Conqueror of
England became king, he built a tax
collecting system
• Later, King Henry II reformed the
legal system
• He had judges travel throughout
England to enforce the laws
• The decisions made by these
judges became English common
Evolving Traditions of
• English rulers, nobles, and the
church each wanted to dominate
and control England
• From these struggles, new
traditions emerged
• The Magna Carta
contained two
– Citizens had
certain rights
– Even a monarch
must obey the
Triumph of Parliament
• In 1625, when
Charles I became
king, he ruled as
an absolute
• He tried to rule
parliament or any
representing the
• The struggle
between Charles
and Parliament
broke into civil war
• Parliament’s forces,
lead by Oliver
Cromwell, defeated
the King’s troops
• After a trial,
Charles I was
• This sent a clear
signal that no
English ruler was
above the law
• Parliament
offered the
crown to William
and Mary of
Orange, however
they had to
accept the
English Bill of
Comprehension Check!
Underline the name of the
document that William and Mary
had to accept before they could
rule England?
• The document stated the rights of
English citizens (this ended cruel
or unjust punishments)
• It also upheld the principle of
habeas corpus
– No person could be jailed without
being charged with a specific crime
• This bill set up a government called a
limited monarchy, where a constitution
or legislative body limits the
monarch’s power