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Transcript
Final Exam Review
Unit 3- Ecology
Environment
Every living and nonliving thing that surrounds
an organism
Biotic Factors
• Living Factors
• ex: plants, prey, predators,
bacteria, fungus
Abiotic Factors
• Nonliving Factors
• ex: water, temperature,
sunlight, soil,
Population
A group of one species living in an area
Community
All of the different populations living in an area
Ecosystem
All of the living and nonliving things and how
they interact in an area
Biome
Group of ecosystems that have the same climate
and community
Habitat
Where an organism lives
Trophic Levels
Autotrophs
Organisms that produce
their own food for
energy, photosynthesis
Ex: Producers: make
their own food, through
the process of
photosynthesis, ex:
plants, algae
Heterotrophs
Organisms that cannot produce their own food
for energy
Consumers: Organisms that eat/consume other
organisms
•
•
•
•
•
Herbivore
Carnivore
Omnivore
Scavenger
Decomposer
Herbivore
eats plants, primary consumers, ex: deer, cow
Carnivore
eats meat/other consumers, ex: lion, tiger
Omnivore
eats both plants and animals, ex: humans, raccoons,
bears
Scavenger
eats dead animals, ex: vultures
Decomposer
breaks down dead matter and recycles the nutrients back
to the soil, ex: fungus, bacteria
Food Chain
shows the flow of energy in an ecosystem,
simple
Food Web
• many food
chains
interconnected
• complex
Ecological Pyramids
•
•
•
•
Energy
Biomass
Numbers
decreases as
you move up
the pyramid,
• producers are
always the
largest and on
the bottom.
Biological Magnification
• The concentration of a
toxin increases as is
moves through the
food chain, highest
concentrations at the
top of the food chain,
ex:
• DDT in bald eagles
Biodiversity
The number of different species in an area,
more biodiversity=more stable
Niche
an organisms role/job in its environment, two
species cannot occupy the same niche
Competitive Exclusion
When two
organisms try to
occupy the same
niche, they will
compete. One will
stay in that niche
and the other will
either die or have to
occupy a different
niche
Fundamental Niche
The niche a species can ideally
have, can be larger than the
realized niche
Realized Niche
The niche a species actually
occupies, can be smaller than
the fundamental niche
Niche Diversity
the number of different niches in an ecosystem
due to abiotic factors
• fluctuating abiotic factors many niches (desert)
• constant abiotic factors=few niches (marsh)
Evolution
a slow gradual change in a species over time
Adaptation
A trait that an organism has that allows it to
survive in a changing environment
Specialized species
Generalized species
• A species with a small niche,
only one food source.
• Ex: koala bear and panda
bear
• A species with a large niche,
many food sources.
• Ex: mice, roaches
Convergent evolution
two species evolve separately to have similar
traits because they have similar niches.
Coevolution
• When two
species evolve
to rely on each
other for
survival,
mutualism
• ex: acacia tree
and stinging
ants
Predator-Prey
predator- the hunter
prey-the hunted
Parasitism
one organisms feeds off of another organism for
survival, one species benefits, the other is harmed.
Ex: tapeworm, malaria, ringworm
– Host: The organism the parasite is feeding off of
Mutualism
• two species rely on each other for survival,
both benefit
• ex: Egyptian Plover and Nile Croccodile
Commensalism
One species benefits, the other isn’t harmed or
helped, ex: barnacles on a whale
Invasive Species
A non-native species that
causes harm to the
environment
• Why are they
dangerous?
– They outcompete with
native species for
essential resources
• How do they get here?
– Accidental (in wood),
boats (mass
transportation),
intentional release (pets
that get too big), tropical
plants for garden
Endangered Species
A species that is close to extinction
Main reason for species endangerment?
• Habitat destruction