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Transcript
Early Development
Amphibians
Cleavage in a frog

Describe the progression of events.
Gastrulation in Xenopus

What have fate maps
told us about tissue
origins?
Gastrulation in Xenopus

What are VegT and
Vg1 and what
influcence do they
have?
Gastrulation in Xenopus

What type of cell
movement initiates
gastrulation?
Gastrulation in Xenopus

What happens next?
Gastrulation in Xenopus

What happens at the mid-blastula transition
in preparation for gastrulation?

How is dorsal-ventral axis established?

What happens if cortical rotation is
blocked?
Gastrulation in Xenopus

How did Gimlich and Gerhart demonstrate that
certain cells were responsible for inducing dorsal
lip formation?
Gastrulation in Xenopus

What appears to be the major factor directing
movement of cells into embryo?
Gastrulation in Xenopus

What other cell movements occur?
Gastrulation in Xenopus

What two factors appear to drive
convergent extension?


adhesion proteins paraxial and axial
protocadherin are expressed
changes in calcium concentrations
Gastrulation in Xenopus

At what point in
gatrulation do
notocordal cells
become distinct?
Gastrulation in Xenopus

What mechanism appears to be responsible for
epiboly of the ectoderm?
Axis Formation

How did Hans
Spemann first
demonstrate the
importance of the grey
crescent?
Axis Formation

What did Spemann do
to demonstrate
changes in cell
potency during
gastrulation?
Axis Formation

What classic
experiment was done
by Spemann and
Mangold that led to
the concept of the
organizer?
Axis Formation

How did work of
Nieuwkoop and
Nakamura contribute
to an understanding of
how the “organizer”
worked?
Axis Formation

What is the
Nieuwkoop center?

How is it formed?
Axis Formation

What is involved in the mechanism of
induction of mesoderm by endoderm?

What appears to be the role of β-catenin?

What is the connection between β-catenin
and glycogen synthase kinase – 3 (GSK3)?
Axis Formation

How does β-catenin become concentrated in
dorsal cells of embryo?
Axis Formation

How does β-catenin
contribute to formation
of the organizer?
Axis Formation

What model was
developed by Agius to
explain mesodermal
induction?
The Organizer

What are the four major functions of this
tissue?




differentiate into dorsal mesoderm
induce formation of paraxial mesoderm
induce formation of neural tube
initiate gastrulation movements
The Organizer

What is the role of the goosecoid gene?
The Organizer

How does the
organizer actually
induce formation of
neural tissue?
The Organizer

What are the proteins
secreted by the
organizer?
The Organizer

What can the secreted
protein noggin do?

What other proteins
exhibit similar effects?
The Organizer

What are some of the
important effects of
BMP-4?
The Organizer

What are the functions of the diffusable
proteins cerberus, dickkopf and Frzb?

How do these proteins work?
The Organizer
The Organizer

Why is neurogenin so
important?
Induction

How did Otto Mangold demonstrate the regional
specificity of neural induction?
Induction

Toivonen and Saxen postulated two
gradients in amphibian embryos



dorsal gradient – “neuralizing” activity
caudal gradient – “posteriorizing” activity
What is the primary protein involved in
posteriorizing the neural tube?
Induction

What positive signal
promotes anterior
head development?
Left-Right Axis

What appears to be
major event in leftright axis formation in
Xenopus?